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Trace element supplementation of livestock in new zealand: meeting the challenges of free-range grazing systems.

Grace ND, Knowles SO - Vet Med Int (2012)

Bottom Line: On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates.In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent.Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 26 Williams Road, RD 4, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of no treatment (◯) or intramuscular injection of 400 mg iodised oil (about 7 mg I/kg LW) (●) administered to ewes during early gestation on the concentrations of serum total I in ewes (◯, ●) and their lambs (∆, ▲). The percentage perinatal mortality and the thyroid-weight : birthweight ratio (g/kg) in lambs from the unsupplemented and I-supplemented ewes were 27% versus 16% and 0.70 versus 0.27, respectively. Ratios >0.4 g/kg indicate that a flock is at risk of deficiency and is likely to respond to I supplementation [10, 13].
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fig6: Effect of no treatment (◯) or intramuscular injection of 400 mg iodised oil (about 7 mg I/kg LW) (●) administered to ewes during early gestation on the concentrations of serum total I in ewes (◯, ●) and their lambs (∆, ▲). The percentage perinatal mortality and the thyroid-weight : birthweight ratio (g/kg) in lambs from the unsupplemented and I-supplemented ewes were 27% versus 16% and 0.70 versus 0.27, respectively. Ratios >0.4 g/kg indicate that a flock is at risk of deficiency and is likely to respond to I supplementation [10, 13].

Mentions: Iodine deficiency in New Zealand is most often associated with feeding brassica crops to pregnant ewes during the winter when pasture growth is insufficient to meet the animals' energy requirement. The low I concentration and goitrogen content of some brassica species can cause thyroid gland enlargement (goitre) in 50% or more of newborn lambs. Farm operations will supplement flocks with iodised oil early during gestation, for instance at 4 weeks prior to mating or when ewes are mustered for ultrasound scanning to determine pregnancy status. This raises serum total I concentrations, prevents goitre (i.e., the thyroid : birthweight ratio is less than 0.4 g/kg) and reduces deficiency-associated perinatal mortality regardless of diets fed (Figure 6) [28, 29].


Trace element supplementation of livestock in new zealand: meeting the challenges of free-range grazing systems.

Grace ND, Knowles SO - Vet Med Int (2012)

Effect of no treatment (◯) or intramuscular injection of 400 mg iodised oil (about 7 mg I/kg LW) (●) administered to ewes during early gestation on the concentrations of serum total I in ewes (◯, ●) and their lambs (∆, ▲). The percentage perinatal mortality and the thyroid-weight : birthweight ratio (g/kg) in lambs from the unsupplemented and I-supplemented ewes were 27% versus 16% and 0.70 versus 0.27, respectively. Ratios >0.4 g/kg indicate that a flock is at risk of deficiency and is likely to respond to I supplementation [10, 13].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539419&req=5

fig6: Effect of no treatment (◯) or intramuscular injection of 400 mg iodised oil (about 7 mg I/kg LW) (●) administered to ewes during early gestation on the concentrations of serum total I in ewes (◯, ●) and their lambs (∆, ▲). The percentage perinatal mortality and the thyroid-weight : birthweight ratio (g/kg) in lambs from the unsupplemented and I-supplemented ewes were 27% versus 16% and 0.70 versus 0.27, respectively. Ratios >0.4 g/kg indicate that a flock is at risk of deficiency and is likely to respond to I supplementation [10, 13].
Mentions: Iodine deficiency in New Zealand is most often associated with feeding brassica crops to pregnant ewes during the winter when pasture growth is insufficient to meet the animals' energy requirement. The low I concentration and goitrogen content of some brassica species can cause thyroid gland enlargement (goitre) in 50% or more of newborn lambs. Farm operations will supplement flocks with iodised oil early during gestation, for instance at 4 weeks prior to mating or when ewes are mustered for ultrasound scanning to determine pregnancy status. This raises serum total I concentrations, prevents goitre (i.e., the thyroid : birthweight ratio is less than 0.4 g/kg) and reduces deficiency-associated perinatal mortality regardless of diets fed (Figure 6) [28, 29].

Bottom Line: On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates.In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent.Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 26 Williams Road, RD 4, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus