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Trace element supplementation of livestock in new zealand: meeting the challenges of free-range grazing systems.

Grace ND, Knowles SO - Vet Med Int (2012)

Bottom Line: On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates.In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent.Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 26 Williams Road, RD 4, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of no treatment (◯) or subcutaneous injection of 3 mg microencapsulated vitamin B12 (about 0.20 mg/kg LW) (■) administered to Co-adequate lambs at docking time on serum vitamin B12 concentrations [23].
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig4: Effect of no treatment (◯) or subcutaneous injection of 3 mg microencapsulated vitamin B12 (about 0.20 mg/kg LW) (■) administered to Co-adequate lambs at docking time on serum vitamin B12 concentrations [23].

Mentions: Cobalt is a constituent of vitamin B12, thus Co deficiency is really a vitamin B12 deficiency. The microbes in a mature rumen convert dietary Co into vitamin B12, which the animal absorbs. Very young, preruminant livestock require preformed vitamin B12 in milk, milk replacer diets, or supplements. A long-acting injectable form of vitamin B12 has been developed that contains B12 microencapsulated in lactide-glycolide polymer. It is especially suited to young lambs, which are most sensitive to Co deficiency. A dose rate of about 0.20 mg B12/kg LW will increase and maintain the animal's vitamin B12 status for 6–8 months. Supplementation can markedly reduce mortality and improve the weight gain of deficient lambs. Dramatic effects on 3–5-week-old lambs supplemented at the time of docking, from a flock grazing Co-deficient pastures, are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. A threefold increase in liver vitamin B12 reserves was also maintained for at least 124 days [22]. Early identification and treatment of Co/vitamin B12 deficiency pays dividends, because lambs will achieve slaughter weights of 32–42 kg sooner. Although Co deficiency is prevalent among flocks in New Zealand, it has not yet been documented in young cattle.


Trace element supplementation of livestock in new zealand: meeting the challenges of free-range grazing systems.

Grace ND, Knowles SO - Vet Med Int (2012)

Effect of no treatment (◯) or subcutaneous injection of 3 mg microencapsulated vitamin B12 (about 0.20 mg/kg LW) (■) administered to Co-adequate lambs at docking time on serum vitamin B12 concentrations [23].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539419&req=5

fig4: Effect of no treatment (◯) or subcutaneous injection of 3 mg microencapsulated vitamin B12 (about 0.20 mg/kg LW) (■) administered to Co-adequate lambs at docking time on serum vitamin B12 concentrations [23].
Mentions: Cobalt is a constituent of vitamin B12, thus Co deficiency is really a vitamin B12 deficiency. The microbes in a mature rumen convert dietary Co into vitamin B12, which the animal absorbs. Very young, preruminant livestock require preformed vitamin B12 in milk, milk replacer diets, or supplements. A long-acting injectable form of vitamin B12 has been developed that contains B12 microencapsulated in lactide-glycolide polymer. It is especially suited to young lambs, which are most sensitive to Co deficiency. A dose rate of about 0.20 mg B12/kg LW will increase and maintain the animal's vitamin B12 status for 6–8 months. Supplementation can markedly reduce mortality and improve the weight gain of deficient lambs. Dramatic effects on 3–5-week-old lambs supplemented at the time of docking, from a flock grazing Co-deficient pastures, are illustrated in Figures 3 and 4. A threefold increase in liver vitamin B12 reserves was also maintained for at least 124 days [22]. Early identification and treatment of Co/vitamin B12 deficiency pays dividends, because lambs will achieve slaughter weights of 32–42 kg sooner. Although Co deficiency is prevalent among flocks in New Zealand, it has not yet been documented in young cattle.

Bottom Line: On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates.In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent.Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 26 Williams Road, RD 4, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand.

ABSTRACT
Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus