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Shivasia gen. nov. for the Australasian smut Ustilago solida that historically shifted through five different genera.

Lutz M, Vánky K, Piątek M - IMA Fungus (2012)

Bottom Line: Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage.The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten.Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionäre Ökologie der Pflanzen, Institut für Evolution und Ökologie, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany;

ABSTRACT
The generic position of the enigmatic smut fungus Ustilago solida is evaluated applying molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS and LSU rDNA sequences as well as light and scanning electron microscopical investigations of several collections of this species. Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage. The closest known phylogenetic relative of Ustilago solida is Heterotolyposporium lepidospermatis, the type species of the monotypic genus Heterotolyposporium. Both smuts differ considerably in both LSU sequences and in several morphological traits, such as the structure of sori and the characteristics of spore balls. Accordingly, the new genus Shivasia is described to accommodate Ustilago solida. This smut infects different Schoenus species (Cyperaceae) in Australia and New Zealand. The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten. Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bayesian inference of phylogenetic relationships within the sampled Ustilaginomycetes: Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of an alignment of LSU sequences using the GTR+I+G model of DNA substitution with gamma distributed substitution rates and an estimated proportion of invariant sites, random starting trees and default starting parameters of the DNA substitution model. A 50 % majority-rule consensus tree is shown computed from 45 000 trees that were sampled after the process had reached stationarity. The topology was rooted with the exobasidiomycetous species Entyloma microsporum, Exobasidium vaccinii, and Tilletia caries. Numbers on branches before slashes are estimates for a posteriori probabilities, numbers on branches after slashes are ML bootstrap support values. Branch lengths were averaged over the sampled trees. They are scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The taxonomic concept used here follows Bauer et al. (2001b).
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Figure 1: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic relationships within the sampled Ustilaginomycetes: Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of an alignment of LSU sequences using the GTR+I+G model of DNA substitution with gamma distributed substitution rates and an estimated proportion of invariant sites, random starting trees and default starting parameters of the DNA substitution model. A 50 % majority-rule consensus tree is shown computed from 45 000 trees that were sampled after the process had reached stationarity. The topology was rooted with the exobasidiomycetous species Entyloma microsporum, Exobasidium vaccinii, and Tilletia caries. Numbers on branches before slashes are estimates for a posteriori probabilities, numbers on branches after slashes are ML bootstrap support values. Branch lengths were averaged over the sampled trees. They are scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The taxonomic concept used here follows Bauer et al. (2001b).

Mentions: Genomic DNA was isolated directly from the herbarium specimens. For methods of isolation and crushing of fungal material, DNA extraction, amplification, purification of PCR products, sequencing, and processing of the raw data see Lutz et al. (2004). ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions of the rDNA including the 5.8S rDNA (ITS, about 780 bp) were amplified using the primer pair M-ITS1 (Stoll et al. 2003) and ITS4 (White et al. 1990). The 5’-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU, about 650 bp) was amplified using the primer pair NL1 and NL4 (O’Donnell 1993). PCR primers were also used for cycle sequencing. For amplification the annealing temperature was adjusted to 45 °C. DNA sequences determined for this study were deposited in GenBank. GenBank accession numbers are given in Table 1 and Fig. 1.


Shivasia gen. nov. for the Australasian smut Ustilago solida that historically shifted through five different genera.

Lutz M, Vánky K, Piątek M - IMA Fungus (2012)

Bayesian inference of phylogenetic relationships within the sampled Ustilaginomycetes: Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of an alignment of LSU sequences using the GTR+I+G model of DNA substitution with gamma distributed substitution rates and an estimated proportion of invariant sites, random starting trees and default starting parameters of the DNA substitution model. A 50 % majority-rule consensus tree is shown computed from 45 000 trees that were sampled after the process had reached stationarity. The topology was rooted with the exobasidiomycetous species Entyloma microsporum, Exobasidium vaccinii, and Tilletia caries. Numbers on branches before slashes are estimates for a posteriori probabilities, numbers on branches after slashes are ML bootstrap support values. Branch lengths were averaged over the sampled trees. They are scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The taxonomic concept used here follows Bauer et al. (2001b).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539317&req=5

Figure 1: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic relationships within the sampled Ustilaginomycetes: Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of an alignment of LSU sequences using the GTR+I+G model of DNA substitution with gamma distributed substitution rates and an estimated proportion of invariant sites, random starting trees and default starting parameters of the DNA substitution model. A 50 % majority-rule consensus tree is shown computed from 45 000 trees that were sampled after the process had reached stationarity. The topology was rooted with the exobasidiomycetous species Entyloma microsporum, Exobasidium vaccinii, and Tilletia caries. Numbers on branches before slashes are estimates for a posteriori probabilities, numbers on branches after slashes are ML bootstrap support values. Branch lengths were averaged over the sampled trees. They are scaled in terms of expected numbers of nucleotide substitutions per site. The taxonomic concept used here follows Bauer et al. (2001b).
Mentions: Genomic DNA was isolated directly from the herbarium specimens. For methods of isolation and crushing of fungal material, DNA extraction, amplification, purification of PCR products, sequencing, and processing of the raw data see Lutz et al. (2004). ITS 1 and ITS 2 regions of the rDNA including the 5.8S rDNA (ITS, about 780 bp) were amplified using the primer pair M-ITS1 (Stoll et al. 2003) and ITS4 (White et al. 1990). The 5’-end of the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU, about 650 bp) was amplified using the primer pair NL1 and NL4 (O’Donnell 1993). PCR primers were also used for cycle sequencing. For amplification the annealing temperature was adjusted to 45 °C. DNA sequences determined for this study were deposited in GenBank. GenBank accession numbers are given in Table 1 and Fig. 1.

Bottom Line: Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage.The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten.Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Evolutionäre Ökologie der Pflanzen, Institut für Evolution und Ökologie, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 1, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany;

ABSTRACT
The generic position of the enigmatic smut fungus Ustilago solida is evaluated applying molecular phylogenetic analyses using ITS and LSU rDNA sequences as well as light and scanning electron microscopical investigations of several collections of this species. Ustilago solida has previously been included in five different genera (Ustilago, Urocystis, Sorosporium, Cintractia, and Tolyposporium), however, molecular analyses revealed that this smut does not belong to any of these genera and represents a distinct ustilaginalean lineage. The closest known phylogenetic relative of Ustilago solida is Heterotolyposporium lepidospermatis, the type species of the monotypic genus Heterotolyposporium. Both smuts differ considerably in both LSU sequences and in several morphological traits, such as the structure of sori and the characteristics of spore balls. Accordingly, the new genus Shivasia is described to accommodate Ustilago solida. This smut infects different Schoenus species (Cyperaceae) in Australia and New Zealand. The description of Shivasia increases the number of endemic smut genera in Australasia to ten. Compared to all other continents the number of endemic smut genera is exceptionally high, which may point at fast evolving characters and/or may be caused by the regional history, including the long-term geographic isolation of Australasia.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus