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Ascus apical apparatus and ascospore characters in Xylariaceae.

Suwannasai N, Whalley MA, Whalley AJ, Thienhirun S, Sihanonth P - IMA Fungus (2012)

Bottom Line: Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania.At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized.Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology (Microbiology), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, 114 Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok, 10110, Thailand;

ABSTRACT
Members of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) are recognized and classified mainly on the morphological features of their sexual state. In a number of genera high morphological variation of stromatal characters has made confident recognition of generic and specific boundaries difficult. There are, however, a range of microscopical characteristics which can in most cases make distinctions, especially at generic level, even in the absence of molecular data. These include details of the apical apparatus in the ascus (e.g. disc-shaped, inverted hat-shaped, rhomboid, composed of rings, amyloid, non-amyloid); position and length of the germ slit; and presence and type of ascospore wall ornamentation as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unfortunately many of the classical studies on xylariaceous genera omitted these features and were undertaken long before the development of scanning electron microscopy. More recent studies have, however, demonstrated their value as diagnostic characters in the family. Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania. At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized. Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

No MeSH data available.


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Asci and different types of apical apparatus. A.Hypoxylonfuscum with disc-like apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (AJSW 078*). B.Camillea selangorensis ascus (IMI – isotype). C.Kretzschmaria clavus ascus with apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). D.Nemania bipapillata ascus with stipe (AJSW 693). E.K. clavus showing distinctive urniform apical apparatus stained dark blue in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). F.C. fusiformis with rhomboid apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (MAW S21, IMI) G.Hypoxylon lividicolor ascus with long stipe (ST 1047 RFD). H.Xylaria aristata ascus with apical apparatus arrowed (ST 1411 RFD). Bars A–B, F–H = 10 μm; C–D = 25 μm; E = 5 μm.* Collection abbreviations: AJSW = Liverpool John Moores University, UK; SUT = Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; ST Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand; SWU Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand – incorporating collections from national parks and forests of Thailand H (Khao Kra Yang Plantation, Phitsanulok Province), PK (Phu Kheio Wildlife Sanctuary, Chaiyaphum Province), and PH (Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok Province).
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Figure 2: Asci and different types of apical apparatus. A.Hypoxylonfuscum with disc-like apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (AJSW 078*). B.Camillea selangorensis ascus (IMI – isotype). C.Kretzschmaria clavus ascus with apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). D.Nemania bipapillata ascus with stipe (AJSW 693). E.K. clavus showing distinctive urniform apical apparatus stained dark blue in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). F.C. fusiformis with rhomboid apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (MAW S21, IMI) G.Hypoxylon lividicolor ascus with long stipe (ST 1047 RFD). H.Xylaria aristata ascus with apical apparatus arrowed (ST 1411 RFD). Bars A–B, F–H = 10 μm; C–D = 25 μm; E = 5 μm.* Collection abbreviations: AJSW = Liverpool John Moores University, UK; SUT = Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; ST Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand; SWU Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand – incorporating collections from national parks and forests of Thailand H (Khao Kra Yang Plantation, Phitsanulok Province), PK (Phu Kheio Wildlife Sanctuary, Chaiyaphum Province), and PH (Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok Province).

Mentions: In most of the currently recognized genera of Xylariaceae the asci contain eight spores. Exceptions include Wawelia, with 4-spored asci (Minter & Webster 1983, Lundqvist 1992) and Thuemenella with 6-spored asci (Samuels & Rossman 1992). In general, the xylariaceous ascus is cylindrical and possesses a stipe. In Biscogniauxia the stipe is frequently short in relation to the spore-containing part of the ascus, whilst in Xylaria and Kretzschmaria the stipes are usually long. Hypoxylon begae, H. haematostroma and H. polyporum are notable within the genus for their very long stipes which appear to have diagnostic value (Ju & Rogers 1996). The apical tip of the ascus is usually rounded and encloses an apical apparatus which is mostly amyloid, staining blue in Melzer’s iodine reagent. There are a number of taxa in which no apical apparatus can be seen by light microscopy although the possibility of some remnant structures cannot be excluded as such taxa have not yet been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The shape and size of the apical apparatus is one of the more important taxonomic features exhibited in Xylariaceae (Fig. 2). The general appearance of the apical apparatus has been successfully applied in taxonomic studies of the family (e.g. Munk 1957, Carroll 1963, 1964, Martin 1967, 1968a, b, 1969a, b, Krug & Cain 1974a, b, Francis 1975, Rogers 1979, Læssøe et al. 1989, van der Gucht 1995, Ju & Rogers 1996, Whalley 1996). Unfortunately, a number of important taxonomic studies in the family have not considered this feature. On the basis of shape and size, at least five types of amyloid apical apparatus can be recognized plus a category in which there is no visible apparatus:1)


Ascus apical apparatus and ascospore characters in Xylariaceae.

Suwannasai N, Whalley MA, Whalley AJ, Thienhirun S, Sihanonth P - IMA Fungus (2012)

Asci and different types of apical apparatus. A.Hypoxylonfuscum with disc-like apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (AJSW 078*). B.Camillea selangorensis ascus (IMI – isotype). C.Kretzschmaria clavus ascus with apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). D.Nemania bipapillata ascus with stipe (AJSW 693). E.K. clavus showing distinctive urniform apical apparatus stained dark blue in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). F.C. fusiformis with rhomboid apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (MAW S21, IMI) G.Hypoxylon lividicolor ascus with long stipe (ST 1047 RFD). H.Xylaria aristata ascus with apical apparatus arrowed (ST 1411 RFD). Bars A–B, F–H = 10 μm; C–D = 25 μm; E = 5 μm.* Collection abbreviations: AJSW = Liverpool John Moores University, UK; SUT = Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; ST Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand; SWU Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand – incorporating collections from national parks and forests of Thailand H (Khao Kra Yang Plantation, Phitsanulok Province), PK (Phu Kheio Wildlife Sanctuary, Chaiyaphum Province), and PH (Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok Province).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3539315&req=5

Figure 2: Asci and different types of apical apparatus. A.Hypoxylonfuscum with disc-like apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (AJSW 078*). B.Camillea selangorensis ascus (IMI – isotype). C.Kretzschmaria clavus ascus with apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). D.Nemania bipapillata ascus with stipe (AJSW 693). E.K. clavus showing distinctive urniform apical apparatus stained dark blue in Melzer’s reagent (PK 270). F.C. fusiformis with rhomboid apical apparatus stained in Melzer’s reagent (MAW S21, IMI) G.Hypoxylon lividicolor ascus with long stipe (ST 1047 RFD). H.Xylaria aristata ascus with apical apparatus arrowed (ST 1411 RFD). Bars A–B, F–H = 10 μm; C–D = 25 μm; E = 5 μm.* Collection abbreviations: AJSW = Liverpool John Moores University, UK; SUT = Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; ST Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand; SWU Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok, Thailand – incorporating collections from national parks and forests of Thailand H (Khao Kra Yang Plantation, Phitsanulok Province), PK (Phu Kheio Wildlife Sanctuary, Chaiyaphum Province), and PH (Phu Hin Rong Kla National Park, Phitsanulok Province).
Mentions: In most of the currently recognized genera of Xylariaceae the asci contain eight spores. Exceptions include Wawelia, with 4-spored asci (Minter & Webster 1983, Lundqvist 1992) and Thuemenella with 6-spored asci (Samuels & Rossman 1992). In general, the xylariaceous ascus is cylindrical and possesses a stipe. In Biscogniauxia the stipe is frequently short in relation to the spore-containing part of the ascus, whilst in Xylaria and Kretzschmaria the stipes are usually long. Hypoxylon begae, H. haematostroma and H. polyporum are notable within the genus for their very long stipes which appear to have diagnostic value (Ju & Rogers 1996). The apical tip of the ascus is usually rounded and encloses an apical apparatus which is mostly amyloid, staining blue in Melzer’s iodine reagent. There are a number of taxa in which no apical apparatus can be seen by light microscopy although the possibility of some remnant structures cannot be excluded as such taxa have not yet been studied by transmission electron microscopy. The shape and size of the apical apparatus is one of the more important taxonomic features exhibited in Xylariaceae (Fig. 2). The general appearance of the apical apparatus has been successfully applied in taxonomic studies of the family (e.g. Munk 1957, Carroll 1963, 1964, Martin 1967, 1968a, b, 1969a, b, Krug & Cain 1974a, b, Francis 1975, Rogers 1979, Læssøe et al. 1989, van der Gucht 1995, Ju & Rogers 1996, Whalley 1996). Unfortunately, a number of important taxonomic studies in the family have not considered this feature. On the basis of shape and size, at least five types of amyloid apical apparatus can be recognized plus a category in which there is no visible apparatus:1)

Bottom Line: Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania.At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized.Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology (Microbiology), Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, 114 Sukhumvit 23, Bangkok, 10110, Thailand;

ABSTRACT
Members of Xylariaceae (Ascomycota) are recognized and classified mainly on the morphological features of their sexual state. In a number of genera high morphological variation of stromatal characters has made confident recognition of generic and specific boundaries difficult. There are, however, a range of microscopical characteristics which can in most cases make distinctions, especially at generic level, even in the absence of molecular data. These include details of the apical apparatus in the ascus (e.g. disc-shaped, inverted hat-shaped, rhomboid, composed of rings, amyloid, non-amyloid); position and length of the germ slit; and presence and type of ascospore wall ornamentation as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Unfortunately many of the classical studies on xylariaceous genera omitted these features and were undertaken long before the development of scanning electron microscopy. More recent studies have, however, demonstrated their value as diagnostic characters in the family. Camillea is for example, instantly recognizable by its rhomboid or diamond shaped apical apparatus, and the distinctive inverted hat or urniform type is usually prominent in Xylaria, Rosellinia, Kretzschmaria, and Nemania. At least six categories of apical apparatus based on shape and size can be recognized. Ascospore ornamentation as seen by SEM has been exceptionally useful and provided the basis for separating Camillea from Biscogniauxia and other xylariaceous genera.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus