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Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fuermaier AB, Tucha L, Koerts J, Mueller AK, Lange KW, Tucha O - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses.Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity.

Methods: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants.

Results: Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.

Conclusions: The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

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Mean stigma scores and standard deviations on the subscales.Subscale 1: Reliability and Social Functioning; Subscale 2: Malingering and Misuse of Medication; Subscale 3: Ability to Take Responsibility; Subscale 4: Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior; Subscale 5: Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure; Subscale 6: Etiology. Higher stigma scores indicate increased stigmatizing beliefs; All subscales differ significantly (p<.05) from each other with the exception of the comparison between 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and 6 (p>.05).
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pone-0051755-g001: Mean stigma scores and standard deviations on the subscales.Subscale 1: Reliability and Social Functioning; Subscale 2: Malingering and Misuse of Medication; Subscale 3: Ability to Take Responsibility; Subscale 4: Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior; Subscale 5: Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure; Subscale 6: Etiology. Higher stigma scores indicate increased stigmatizing beliefs; All subscales differ significantly (p<.05) from each other with the exception of the comparison between 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and 6 (p>.05).

Mentions: A dependent sample ANOVA indicated significant overall differences in stigmatization between the subscales (F(5;5095) = 295.2; p<.001). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between all pairs of subscales with the exception of the comparison between subscale 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and subscale 6 (Figure 1). Participants displayed the most pronounced stigma responses on subscale 5 (Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure) followed by subscale 1 (Reliability and Social Functioning), subscale 4 (Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior), subscales 3 (Ability to Take Responsibility) and 6 (Etiology) and finally subscale 2 (Malingering and Misuse of Medication). Effect sizes of pairwise comparisons ranged from negligible size to large size (Table 5).


Measurement of stigmatization towards adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Fuermaier AB, Tucha L, Koerts J, Mueller AK, Lange KW, Tucha O - PLoS ONE (2012)

Mean stigma scores and standard deviations on the subscales.Subscale 1: Reliability and Social Functioning; Subscale 2: Malingering and Misuse of Medication; Subscale 3: Ability to Take Responsibility; Subscale 4: Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior; Subscale 5: Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure; Subscale 6: Etiology. Higher stigma scores indicate increased stigmatizing beliefs; All subscales differ significantly (p<.05) from each other with the exception of the comparison between 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and 6 (p>.05).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526652&req=5

pone-0051755-g001: Mean stigma scores and standard deviations on the subscales.Subscale 1: Reliability and Social Functioning; Subscale 2: Malingering and Misuse of Medication; Subscale 3: Ability to Take Responsibility; Subscale 4: Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior; Subscale 5: Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure; Subscale 6: Etiology. Higher stigma scores indicate increased stigmatizing beliefs; All subscales differ significantly (p<.05) from each other with the exception of the comparison between 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and 6 (p>.05).
Mentions: A dependent sample ANOVA indicated significant overall differences in stigmatization between the subscales (F(5;5095) = 295.2; p<.001). Post-hoc pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between all pairs of subscales with the exception of the comparison between subscale 1 and subscale 4 and between subscale 3 and subscale 6 (Figure 1). Participants displayed the most pronounced stigma responses on subscale 5 (Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure) followed by subscale 1 (Reliability and Social Functioning), subscale 4 (Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior), subscales 3 (Ability to Take Responsibility) and 6 (Etiology) and finally subscale 2 (Malingering and Misuse of Medication). Effect sizes of pairwise comparisons ranged from negligible size to large size (Table 5).

Bottom Line: A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses.Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Clinical and Developmental Neuropsychology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In general, assessment tools for stigma in mental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are lacking. Moreover, misbeliefs and misconceptions about ADHD are common, in particular with regard to the adult form of ADHD. The aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire measuring stigma in adults with ADHD and to demonstrate its sensitivity.

Methods: A questionnaire initially containing 64 items associated with stigma in adults with ADHD was developed. A total number of 1261 respondents were included in the analyses. The psychometric properties were investigated on a sample of 1033 participants. The sensitivity of the questionnaire was explored on 228 participants consisting of teachers, physicians and control participants.

Results: Thirty-seven items were extracted due to exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the internal consistency of items. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed good psychometric properties of a 6-factor structure. Teachers and physicians differed significantly in their stigmatizing attitudes from control participants.

Conclusions: The present data shed light on various dimensions of stigma in adult ADHD. Reliability and Social Functioning, Malingering and Misuse of Medication, Ability to Take Responsibility, Norm-violating and Externalizing Behavior, Consequences of Diagnostic Disclosure and Etiology represent critical aspects associated with stigmatization.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus