Limits...
Impact of vector dispersal and host-plant fidelity on the dissemination of an emerging plant pathogen.

Johannesen J, Foissac X, Kehrli P, Maixner M - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen.We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps.Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany. jesjo@uni-mainz.de

ABSTRACT
Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Summary co-dispersal analysis of H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on genealogies and frequency distributions of genetic markers for explaining dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe.The figure combines Fig. 1a and e, showing incongruent historical dispersal events and indicates that dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe was caused by introduction of tuf-a by secondary immigration of vectors (scenario 3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526651&req=5

pone-0051809-g004: Summary co-dispersal analysis of H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on genealogies and frequency distributions of genetic markers for explaining dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe.The figure combines Fig. 1a and e, showing incongruent historical dispersal events and indicates that dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe was caused by introduction of tuf-a by secondary immigration of vectors (scenario 3).

Mentions: The historical co-dispersal of the vector H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on the phylogenies and genetic frequency distributions analysed above is summarised in Fig. 4. The figure combines the hypothesis settings of Fig. 1a (vector) and Fig. 1e (tuf-a stolbur) and shows non-concordant phylogenetic and geographic distributions between tuf-a (based on vmp1 and stamp genotypes) and vector mtDNA haplotypes for populations in North-western Europe (Germany). The vector's haplotype frequency distributions and genealogical relationships presented in Fig.1a and based on [32] were confirmed in the present study. Non-concordance was caused by German vectors of the eastern “aa” lineage, which originated in Slovenia, being infected with the western tuf-a genotype N1s1 found in France and Switzerland.


Impact of vector dispersal and host-plant fidelity on the dissemination of an emerging plant pathogen.

Johannesen J, Foissac X, Kehrli P, Maixner M - PLoS ONE (2012)

Summary co-dispersal analysis of H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on genealogies and frequency distributions of genetic markers for explaining dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe.The figure combines Fig. 1a and e, showing incongruent historical dispersal events and indicates that dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe was caused by introduction of tuf-a by secondary immigration of vectors (scenario 3).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526651&req=5

pone-0051809-g004: Summary co-dispersal analysis of H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on genealogies and frequency distributions of genetic markers for explaining dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe.The figure combines Fig. 1a and e, showing incongruent historical dispersal events and indicates that dissemination of tuf-a in north-western Europe was caused by introduction of tuf-a by secondary immigration of vectors (scenario 3).
Mentions: The historical co-dispersal of the vector H. obsoletus and tuf-a stolbur based on the phylogenies and genetic frequency distributions analysed above is summarised in Fig. 4. The figure combines the hypothesis settings of Fig. 1a (vector) and Fig. 1e (tuf-a stolbur) and shows non-concordant phylogenetic and geographic distributions between tuf-a (based on vmp1 and stamp genotypes) and vector mtDNA haplotypes for populations in North-western Europe (Germany). The vector's haplotype frequency distributions and genealogical relationships presented in Fig.1a and based on [32] were confirmed in the present study. Non-concordance was caused by German vectors of the eastern “aa” lineage, which originated in Slovenia, being infected with the western tuf-a genotype N1s1 found in France and Switzerland.

Bottom Line: In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen.We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps.Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Zoology, University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany. jesjo@uni-mainz.de

ABSTRACT
Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus