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The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

Gumbel JH, Patterson EM, Owusu SA, Kabat BE, Jung DO, Simmons J, Hopkins T, Ellsworth BS - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5.This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland.Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

ABSTRACT
The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Pituitary cell proliferation is increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos.(A–J) Actively dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect BrdU in mid-sagittal sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. (K) The number of BrdU-positive cells was manually counted in pituitary sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. The number of BrdU-positive cells is significantly higher in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryonic pituitaries at e14.5 and e16.5 as compared to wild type littermates (P<0.01).
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pone-0052156-g006: Pituitary cell proliferation is increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos.(A–J) Actively dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect BrdU in mid-sagittal sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. (K) The number of BrdU-positive cells was manually counted in pituitary sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. The number of BrdU-positive cells is significantly higher in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryonic pituitaries at e14.5 and e16.5 as compared to wild type littermates (P<0.01).

Mentions: Excessive pituitary cell proliferation can cause the pituitary gland to increase in size and protrude through the cartilage plate. Actively dividing cells were labeled in Foxd1 wild type and embryos from e10.5 through e18.5 with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (Fig. 6A–J). The number of BrdU-positive pituitary cells was counted manually. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is significantly increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos at e14.5 and e16.5 (Fig. 6K).


The forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is necessary for pituitary luteinizing hormone expression in mice.

Gumbel JH, Patterson EM, Owusu SA, Kabat BE, Jung DO, Simmons J, Hopkins T, Ellsworth BS - PLoS ONE (2012)

Pituitary cell proliferation is increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos.(A–J) Actively dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect BrdU in mid-sagittal sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. (K) The number of BrdU-positive cells was manually counted in pituitary sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. The number of BrdU-positive cells is significantly higher in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryonic pituitaries at e14.5 and e16.5 as compared to wild type littermates (P<0.01).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526578&req=5

pone-0052156-g006: Pituitary cell proliferation is increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos.(A–J) Actively dividing cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect BrdU in mid-sagittal sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. (K) The number of BrdU-positive cells was manually counted in pituitary sections from Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos and wild type littermates. The number of BrdU-positive cells is significantly higher in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryonic pituitaries at e14.5 and e16.5 as compared to wild type littermates (P<0.01).
Mentions: Excessive pituitary cell proliferation can cause the pituitary gland to increase in size and protrude through the cartilage plate. Actively dividing cells were labeled in Foxd1 wild type and embryos from e10.5 through e18.5 with the thymidine analog bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) (Fig. 6A–J). The number of BrdU-positive pituitary cells was counted manually. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is significantly increased in Foxd1LacZ/LacZ embryos at e14.5 and e16.5 (Fig. 6K).

Bottom Line: Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5.This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland.Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois, USA.

ABSTRACT
The pituitary gland regulates numerous physiological functions including growth, reproduction, temperature and metabolic homeostasis, lactation, and response to stress. Pituitary organogenesis is dependent on signaling factors that are produced in and around the developing pituitary. The studies described in this report reveal that the forkhead transcription factor, Foxd1, is not expressed in the developing mouse pituitary gland, but rather in the mesenchyme surrounding the pituitary gland, which is an essential source of signaling factors that regulate pituitary organogenesis. Loss of Foxd1 causes a morphological defect in which the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland protrudes through the cartilage plate that is developing ventral to the pituitary at embryonic days (e)14.5, e16.5, and e18.5. The number of proliferating pituitary cells is increased at e14.5 and e16.5. Loss of Foxd1 also results in significantly decreased levels of Lhb expression at e18.5. This decrease in Lhb expression does not appear to be due to a change in the number of gonadotrope cells in the pituitary gland. Previous studies have shown that loss of the LIM homeodomain factor, Lhx3, which is activated by the FGF signaling pathway, results in loss of LH production. Although there is a difference in Lhb expression in Foxd1 mice, the expression pattern of LHX3 is not altered in Foxd1 mice. These studies suggest that Foxd1 is indirectly required for normal Lhb expression and cartilage formation.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus