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New perspectives for natural antimicrobial peptides: application as antinflammatory drugs in a murine model.

Capparelli R, De Chiara F, Nocerino N, Montella RC, Iannaccone M, Fulgione A, Romanelli A, Avitabile C, Blaiotta G, Capuano F - BMC Immunol. (2012)

Bottom Line: They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties.Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity.The study shows that the MIX - a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80134, Italy. capparel@unina.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an ancient group of defense molecules. AMPs are widely distributed in nature (being present in mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, plants, and microorganisms). They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of a combination of two AMPs (temporin B and the royal jellein I) against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Results: The temporin B (TB-KK) and the royal jelleins I, II, III chemically modified at the C terminal (RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C), were tested for their activity against 10 different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, alone and in combination. Of the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity. Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity. In vitro, the MIX displayed low hemolytic activity, no NO2- production and the ability to curb the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ to the same extent as acetylsalicylic acid. In vivo, the MIX sterilized mice infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis in eleven days and inhibited the expression of genes encoding the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) and CD64, two important parameters of inflammation.

Conclusion: The study shows that the MIX - a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Antimicrobial activity of the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) and of MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) are shown as inhibition zone assay. A larger zone of inhibition is evident around the MIX compared to the single components. (B) J774 cell line treated with the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) or the MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) maintain the same growth rate compare to the untreated control.
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Figure 2: (A) Antimicrobial activity of the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) and of MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) are shown as inhibition zone assay. A larger zone of inhibition is evident around the MIX compared to the single components. (B) J774 cell line treated with the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) or the MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) maintain the same growth rate compare to the untreated control.

Mentions: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C and TB-KK (Table 2) these AMPs were tested in vitro [8,9], individually and in combination, against 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Among the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity (MIC: 30 μg/ml) (Table 3). Tested in various combination (RJI-C at 20 μg/ml and RJII-C at 5–20 μg/ml ; RJI-C at 20 μg/ml and RJIII-C at 5–20 μg/ml; RJII-C at 20 μg/ml and RJIII-C at 5–20 μg/ml), the royal jelleins did not display synergistic effects. Only RJI-C was thus tested for synergism with TB-KK. The combination of the two antimicrobials – RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml (MIX) – displayed a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5, which is evidence of synergism [20] (Table 3). The strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were all sensitive to the MIX, but not its components (Table 4). This conclusion is supported by the larger inhibition ring of the MIX, compared to that of the individual components (Figure 2A).


New perspectives for natural antimicrobial peptides: application as antinflammatory drugs in a murine model.

Capparelli R, De Chiara F, Nocerino N, Montella RC, Iannaccone M, Fulgione A, Romanelli A, Avitabile C, Blaiotta G, Capuano F - BMC Immunol. (2012)

(A) Antimicrobial activity of the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) and of MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) are shown as inhibition zone assay. A larger zone of inhibition is evident around the MIX compared to the single components. (B) J774 cell line treated with the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) or the MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) maintain the same growth rate compare to the untreated control.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526545&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Antimicrobial activity of the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) and of MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) are shown as inhibition zone assay. A larger zone of inhibition is evident around the MIX compared to the single components. (B) J774 cell line treated with the single peptides (RJI-C 9 μg/ml; RJII-C 15 μg/ml; TB-KK 6 μg/ml) or the MIX (RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml) maintain the same growth rate compare to the untreated control.
Mentions: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C and TB-KK (Table 2) these AMPs were tested in vitro [8,9], individually and in combination, against 10 Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Among the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity (MIC: 30 μg/ml) (Table 3). Tested in various combination (RJI-C at 20 μg/ml and RJII-C at 5–20 μg/ml ; RJI-C at 20 μg/ml and RJIII-C at 5–20 μg/ml; RJII-C at 20 μg/ml and RJIII-C at 5–20 μg/ml), the royal jelleins did not display synergistic effects. Only RJI-C was thus tested for synergism with TB-KK. The combination of the two antimicrobials – RJI-C at 9 μg/ml and TB-KK at 6 μg/ml (MIX) – displayed a fractional inhibitory concentration index ≤ 0.5, which is evidence of synergism [20] (Table 3). The strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were all sensitive to the MIX, but not its components (Table 4). This conclusion is supported by the larger inhibition ring of the MIX, compared to that of the individual components (Figure 2A).

Bottom Line: They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties.Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity.The study shows that the MIX - a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Biotechnology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples 80134, Italy. capparel@unina.it

ABSTRACT

Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an ancient group of defense molecules. AMPs are widely distributed in nature (being present in mammals, birds, amphibians, insects, plants, and microorganisms). They display bactericidal as well as immunomodulatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of a combination of two AMPs (temporin B and the royal jellein I) against Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Results: The temporin B (TB-KK) and the royal jelleins I, II, III chemically modified at the C terminal (RJI-C, RJII-C, RJIII-C), were tested for their activity against 10 different Staphylococcus epidermidis strains, alone and in combination. Of the three royal jelleins, RJI-C showed the highest activity. Moreover, the combination of RJI-C and TB-KK (MIX) displayed synergistic activity. In vitro, the MIX displayed low hemolytic activity, no NO2- production and the ability to curb the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ to the same extent as acetylsalicylic acid. In vivo, the MIX sterilized mice infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis in eleven days and inhibited the expression of genes encoding the prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) and CD64, two important parameters of inflammation.

Conclusion: The study shows that the MIX - a combination of two naturally occurring peptides - displays both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus