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Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Shechter A, Lespérance P, Ng Ying Kin NM, Boivin DB - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Progesterone was significantly (P = .025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences.PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP.Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Circadian variation of plasma melatonin during the follicular phase in PMDD women and an expanded group of controls.†* indicates significant differences between controls and PMDD women (P<.05). Data are double-plotted for illustration purposes. Values are mean ± SEM. † This figure presents FP data from the 5 control participants and 5 PMDD participants included in Figure 1, but the control group is supplemented by data from 3 other young healthy women who were studied under constant conditions in unrelated experiments. This larger group of 8 controls was compared to the 5 PMDD women of the current study during the FP in an attempt to increase sample size and further confirm results from our baseline group comparisons.
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pone-0051929-g002: Circadian variation of plasma melatonin during the follicular phase in PMDD women and an expanded group of controls.†* indicates significant differences between controls and PMDD women (P<.05). Data are double-plotted for illustration purposes. Values are mean ± SEM. † This figure presents FP data from the 5 control participants and 5 PMDD participants included in Figure 1, but the control group is supplemented by data from 3 other young healthy women who were studied under constant conditions in unrelated experiments. This larger group of 8 controls was compared to the 5 PMDD women of the current study during the FP in an attempt to increase sample size and further confirm results from our baseline group comparisons.

Mentions: The baseline comparison of plasma melatonin during FP in PMDD and the expanded group of controls (n = 8) revealed a significant group x circadian phase interaction (F11,121 = 2.20, P = .02), indicating a significant circadian variation (P<.001, simple main effects) in both groups, as well as significantly reduced melatonin levels in PMDD compared to controls at circadian phases centered at 300° and 330° (P<.05, simple main effects) during FP (Fig. 2).


Pilot investigation of the circadian plasma melatonin rhythm across the menstrual cycle in a small group of women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Shechter A, Lespérance P, Ng Ying Kin NM, Boivin DB - PLoS ONE (2012)

Circadian variation of plasma melatonin during the follicular phase in PMDD women and an expanded group of controls.†* indicates significant differences between controls and PMDD women (P<.05). Data are double-plotted for illustration purposes. Values are mean ± SEM. † This figure presents FP data from the 5 control participants and 5 PMDD participants included in Figure 1, but the control group is supplemented by data from 3 other young healthy women who were studied under constant conditions in unrelated experiments. This larger group of 8 controls was compared to the 5 PMDD women of the current study during the FP in an attempt to increase sample size and further confirm results from our baseline group comparisons.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3526531&req=5

pone-0051929-g002: Circadian variation of plasma melatonin during the follicular phase in PMDD women and an expanded group of controls.†* indicates significant differences between controls and PMDD women (P<.05). Data are double-plotted for illustration purposes. Values are mean ± SEM. † This figure presents FP data from the 5 control participants and 5 PMDD participants included in Figure 1, but the control group is supplemented by data from 3 other young healthy women who were studied under constant conditions in unrelated experiments. This larger group of 8 controls was compared to the 5 PMDD women of the current study during the FP in an attempt to increase sample size and further confirm results from our baseline group comparisons.
Mentions: The baseline comparison of plasma melatonin during FP in PMDD and the expanded group of controls (n = 8) revealed a significant group x circadian phase interaction (F11,121 = 2.20, P = .02), indicating a significant circadian variation (P<.001, simple main effects) in both groups, as well as significantly reduced melatonin levels in PMDD compared to controls at circadian phases centered at 300° and 330° (P<.05, simple main effects) during FP (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Progesterone was significantly (P = .025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences.PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP.Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) experience mood deterioration and altered circadian rhythms during the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles. Disturbed circadian rhythms may be involved in the development of clinical mood states, though this relationship is not fully characterized in PMDD. We therefore conducted an extensive chronobiological characterization of the melatonin rhythm in a small group of PMDD women and female controls. In this pilot study, participants included five women with PMDD and five age-matched controls with no evidence of menstrual-related mood disorders. Participants underwent two 24-hour laboratory visits, during the follicular phase (FP) and LP of the menstrual cycle, consisting of intensive physiological monitoring under "unmasked", time-isolation conditions. Measures included visual analogue scale for mood, ovarian hormones, and 24-hour plasma melatonin. Mood significantly (P≤.03) worsened during LP in PMDD compared to FP and controls. Progesterone was significantly (P = .025) increased during LP compared to FP, with no between-group differences. Compared to controls, PMDD women had significantly (P<.05) decreased melatonin at circadian phases spanning the biological night during both menstrual phases and reduced amplitude of its circadian rhythm during LP. PMDD women also had reduced area under the curve of melatonin during LP compared to FP. PMDD women showed affected circadian melatonin rhythms, with reduced nocturnal secretion and amplitude during the symptomatic phase compared to controls. Despite our small sample size, these pilot findings support a role for disturbed circadian rhythms in affective disorders. Possible associations with disrupted serotonergic transmission are proposed.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus