II.1.5 Phenotyping pearl millet for adaptation to drought.
Bottom Line: The DTI is closely associated to the panicle harvest index (PNHI), a trait that relates to a better grain setting and grain filling capacity.However, there is no contribution of root traits in this QTL.Current work is taking place to map these water saving traits, understand their genetic interactions, and design ideotypes having specific genetic make-up toward adaptation to specific rainfall environments.
Affiliation: GT-1 Biotechnology, ICRISAT Patancheru, India.
Pearl millet is highly resilient to some of the driest areas of the world, like the Sahel area or fringes of the Thar desert in India. Despite this, there is a wealth of variation in pearl millet genotypes for their adaptation to drought and the object of this paper was to review some related work in the past 25 years to harness these capacities toward the breeding of better adapted cultivars. Work on short duration cultivars has been a major effort. Pearl millet has also some development plasticity thanks to a high tillering ability, which allows compensating for possible drought-related failure of the main culm under intermittent drought. The development of molecular tools for breeding has made great progress in the last 10-15 years and markers, maps, EST libraries, BACs are now available and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for different traits, including drought, have been identified. Most of the work on drought has focused on the drought tolerance index (DTI), an index that reflect the genetic differences in drought adaptation that are independent of flowering time and yield potential. The DTI is closely associated to the panicle harvest index (PNHI), a trait that relates to a better grain setting and grain filling capacity. Initial work on the DTI involved empirical breeding and selection based on PNHI. A QTL for PNHI has then been identified and introgressed by marker-assisted backcrossing. More recently, a thorough dissection of that QTL has been carried out and shows that high PNHI is related to the constitutive ability of tolerant lines to save water (lower leaf conductance and sensitivity of transpiration to high vapor pressure deficit) at a vegetative stage and use it for the grain filling period. However, there is no contribution of root traits in this QTL. Current work is taking place to map these water saving traits, understand their genetic interactions, and design ideotypes having specific genetic make-up toward adaptation to specific rainfall environments.
No MeSH data available.
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: The likelihood of odds (LOD) score assesses, in part, the importance of a QTL. The higher the LOD score, the more significant is the QTL. Among the many usually identified, one or two major QTLs are chosen to be introgressed into a genetic background of either elite germplasm, or locally adapted germplasm. A few rounds of backcrosses are usually needed to end up with introgression lines having maintained most, if not all, of the recurrent parent genome, except for the portion flanked by the marker pair (Figure 4). Results of the whole effort are represented in Figure 1, where the introgression of a major QTL for terminal drought tolerance from donor parent PRLT/89-33 in the background of sensitive parent, high tillering H77/833-2, led to panicles with a higher percentage of seed setting, and a high 100-grain weight. The output is a genotype that looks essentially like the recurrent parent but with a higher threshing index of the panicle.
No MeSH data available.