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Attentional shifts by gaze direction in voluntary orienting: evidence from a microsaccade study.

Yokoyama T, Noguchi Y, Kita S - Exp Brain Res (2012)

Bottom Line: We found that microsaccade direction followed cue direction between 200 and 400 ms after gaze cues were presented.The results in Experiment 2 were consistent with those from Experiment 1.Taken together, these results indicate that the shift in spatial attention elicited by gaze direction is voluntary orienting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. yokoyama@lit.kobe-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Shifts in spatial attention can be induced by the gaze direction of another. However, it is unclear whether gaze direction influences the allocation of attention by reflexive or voluntary orienting. The present study was designed to examine which type of attentional orienting is elicited by gaze direction. We conducted two experiments to answer this question. In Experiment 1, we used a modified Posner paradigm with gaze cues and measured microsaccades to index the allocation of attention. We found that microsaccade direction followed cue direction between 200 and 400 ms after gaze cues were presented. This is consistent with the latencies observed in other microsaccade studies in which voluntary orienting is manipulated, suggesting that gaze direction elicits voluntary orienting. However, Experiment 1 did not separate voluntary and reflexive orienting directionally, so in Experiment 2, we used an anticue task in which cue direction (direction to allocate attention) was the opposite of gaze direction (direction of gaze in depicted face). The results in Experiment 2 were consistent with those from Experiment 1. Microsaccade direction followed the cue direction, not gaze direction. Taken together, these results indicate that the shift in spatial attention elicited by gaze direction is voluntary orienting.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

An example of the sequence of events for a typical trial. The first fixation display appeared for 500 ms, and then a central cue was presented for 100 ms. The second fixation display then appeared for 1,500–2,000 ms, and a target Gabor appeared for 200 ms
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Fig1: An example of the sequence of events for a typical trial. The first fixation display appeared for 500 ms, and then a central cue was presented for 100 ms. The second fixation display then appeared for 1,500–2,000 ms, and a target Gabor appeared for 200 ms

Mentions: A red square (0.2° × 0.2°) was presented in the center of a uniform black background, and two placeholders (6.2° × 6.2°) were presented at 9.4° right/left of the center of the screen (Fig. 1). A Gabor patch (1° × 1°; spatial frequency: 0.143 deg/cycle) was used as a target and appeared in a white square frame. The direction of Gabor was vertical or horizontal, and luminance levels and root mean square (RMS) contrast levels were 14.7 and 8.9 cd/m2, respectively. We measured luminance and RMS contrast with a luminance and color meter (Konica Minolta CS-100A). For central gaze cues, we used six pictures (three male and three female; 6.2° × 6.2°) from the ATR DB99 database (ATR-Promotions, Kyoto, Japan). All faces had neutral expressions, and gaze direction was leftward, straight, and rightward. The rightward-gaze pictures were the mirror-reversed images of the leftward-gaze pictures. The overall luminance and contrast levels of the pictures were adjusted with Adobe Photoshop 6.0. After controlling luminance levels and RMS contrast, we conducted an analysis of variance (ANOVA) that indicated no significant differences between straight-gaze pictures and rightward-/leftward-gaze pictures for luminance levels (F1,10 = 0.000, p = 0.9969, n.s.) or RMS contrast levels (F1,10 = 0.000, p = 0.7668, n.s.). The means and standard errors of luminance level and RMS contrast are presented in Table 1.Fig. 1


Attentional shifts by gaze direction in voluntary orienting: evidence from a microsaccade study.

Yokoyama T, Noguchi Y, Kita S - Exp Brain Res (2012)

An example of the sequence of events for a typical trial. The first fixation display appeared for 500 ms, and then a central cue was presented for 100 ms. The second fixation display then appeared for 1,500–2,000 ms, and a target Gabor appeared for 200 ms
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475970&req=5

Fig1: An example of the sequence of events for a typical trial. The first fixation display appeared for 500 ms, and then a central cue was presented for 100 ms. The second fixation display then appeared for 1,500–2,000 ms, and a target Gabor appeared for 200 ms
Mentions: A red square (0.2° × 0.2°) was presented in the center of a uniform black background, and two placeholders (6.2° × 6.2°) were presented at 9.4° right/left of the center of the screen (Fig. 1). A Gabor patch (1° × 1°; spatial frequency: 0.143 deg/cycle) was used as a target and appeared in a white square frame. The direction of Gabor was vertical or horizontal, and luminance levels and root mean square (RMS) contrast levels were 14.7 and 8.9 cd/m2, respectively. We measured luminance and RMS contrast with a luminance and color meter (Konica Minolta CS-100A). For central gaze cues, we used six pictures (three male and three female; 6.2° × 6.2°) from the ATR DB99 database (ATR-Promotions, Kyoto, Japan). All faces had neutral expressions, and gaze direction was leftward, straight, and rightward. The rightward-gaze pictures were the mirror-reversed images of the leftward-gaze pictures. The overall luminance and contrast levels of the pictures were adjusted with Adobe Photoshop 6.0. After controlling luminance levels and RMS contrast, we conducted an analysis of variance (ANOVA) that indicated no significant differences between straight-gaze pictures and rightward-/leftward-gaze pictures for luminance levels (F1,10 = 0.000, p = 0.9969, n.s.) or RMS contrast levels (F1,10 = 0.000, p = 0.7668, n.s.). The means and standard errors of luminance level and RMS contrast are presented in Table 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: We found that microsaccade direction followed cue direction between 200 and 400 ms after gaze cues were presented.The results in Experiment 2 were consistent with those from Experiment 1.Taken together, these results indicate that the shift in spatial attention elicited by gaze direction is voluntary orienting.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan. yokoyama@lit.kobe-u.ac.jp

ABSTRACT
Shifts in spatial attention can be induced by the gaze direction of another. However, it is unclear whether gaze direction influences the allocation of attention by reflexive or voluntary orienting. The present study was designed to examine which type of attentional orienting is elicited by gaze direction. We conducted two experiments to answer this question. In Experiment 1, we used a modified Posner paradigm with gaze cues and measured microsaccades to index the allocation of attention. We found that microsaccade direction followed cue direction between 200 and 400 ms after gaze cues were presented. This is consistent with the latencies observed in other microsaccade studies in which voluntary orienting is manipulated, suggesting that gaze direction elicits voluntary orienting. However, Experiment 1 did not separate voluntary and reflexive orienting directionally, so in Experiment 2, we used an anticue task in which cue direction (direction to allocate attention) was the opposite of gaze direction (direction of gaze in depicted face). The results in Experiment 2 were consistent with those from Experiment 1. Microsaccade direction followed the cue direction, not gaze direction. Taken together, these results indicate that the shift in spatial attention elicited by gaze direction is voluntary orienting.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus