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Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a, b) Tubercular hypophysitis: Postcontrast T1-weighted coronal images show enlarged pituitary gland with intraglandular ring enhancing tuberculoma (thin black arrow), and thick enhancing pituitary stalk (thin white arrow). Thickening and enhancement of diaphragma sellae (thick white arrow) is also noted. [Reproduced with permission from Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism]
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Figure 12: (a, b) Tubercular hypophysitis: Postcontrast T1-weighted coronal images show enlarged pituitary gland with intraglandular ring enhancing tuberculoma (thin black arrow), and thick enhancing pituitary stalk (thin white arrow). Thickening and enhancement of diaphragma sellae (thick white arrow) is also noted. [Reproduced with permission from Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism]

Mentions: Tuberculosis is a rare cause of neuroendocrine disorder. Tubercular infection can affect the pituitary gland, stalk, or hypothalamus via formation of a tuberculoma or granuloma. Basal meningitis may lead to basal arteritis and subsequent infarction of the gland. CT/MR imaging [Figure 12] may show uniformly thickened pituitary stalk, diffuse enhancement of basal cisterns/diaphragma sellae and ring or nodular enhancing granuloma. Rarely, pituitary abscesses may be seen. Patients may present with DI or anterior pituitary deficiencies.[1352]


Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

(a, b) Tubercular hypophysitis: Postcontrast T1-weighted coronal images show enlarged pituitary gland with intraglandular ring enhancing tuberculoma (thin black arrow), and thick enhancing pituitary stalk (thin white arrow). Thickening and enhancement of diaphragma sellae (thick white arrow) is also noted. [Reproduced with permission from Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475890&req=5

Figure 12: (a, b) Tubercular hypophysitis: Postcontrast T1-weighted coronal images show enlarged pituitary gland with intraglandular ring enhancing tuberculoma (thin black arrow), and thick enhancing pituitary stalk (thin white arrow). Thickening and enhancement of diaphragma sellae (thick white arrow) is also noted. [Reproduced with permission from Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism]
Mentions: Tuberculosis is a rare cause of neuroendocrine disorder. Tubercular infection can affect the pituitary gland, stalk, or hypothalamus via formation of a tuberculoma or granuloma. Basal meningitis may lead to basal arteritis and subsequent infarction of the gland. CT/MR imaging [Figure 12] may show uniformly thickened pituitary stalk, diffuse enhancement of basal cisterns/diaphragma sellae and ring or nodular enhancing granuloma. Rarely, pituitary abscesses may be seen. Patients may present with DI or anterior pituitary deficiencies.[1352]

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus