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Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Suprasellar germinoma: Coronal T2W FLAIR (a) and postcontrast T1W (b) images show a solid, heterogeneous, moderately enhancing suprasellar mass in hypothalamic/infundibular region. Multiple nonenhancing, hypointense, intratumoral areas are present representing intratumoral hemorrhage or calcification. Postsurgical biopsy proved suprasellar germinoma.
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Figure 9: Suprasellar germinoma: Coronal T2W FLAIR (a) and postcontrast T1W (b) images show a solid, heterogeneous, moderately enhancing suprasellar mass in hypothalamic/infundibular region. Multiple nonenhancing, hypointense, intratumoral areas are present representing intratumoral hemorrhage or calcification. Postsurgical biopsy proved suprasellar germinoma.

Mentions: These are benign, nonfunctional cysts arising from remnants of squamous epithelium from Rathke's cleft. These cysts are commonly seen in the gland, even in healthy children. They typically arise close to insertion of the stalk, however, may lie on surface of the gland. They are nonfunctional but may cause mass effect on the gland. On MRI [Figure 9], these lesions may appear hyperintense on T1-weighted sequence due to high proteinaceous content. It is often difficult to distinguish a large Rathke's cyst from a cystic craniopharyngioma. Minimal cyst wall enhancement, absence of solid enhancing component, and lack of calcification favors Rathke's cyst over craniopharyngioma. The most common neuroendocrine presentation in Rathke's cyst is hypopituitarism and delayed puberty.[47]


Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

Suprasellar germinoma: Coronal T2W FLAIR (a) and postcontrast T1W (b) images show a solid, heterogeneous, moderately enhancing suprasellar mass in hypothalamic/infundibular region. Multiple nonenhancing, hypointense, intratumoral areas are present representing intratumoral hemorrhage or calcification. Postsurgical biopsy proved suprasellar germinoma.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475890&req=5

Figure 9: Suprasellar germinoma: Coronal T2W FLAIR (a) and postcontrast T1W (b) images show a solid, heterogeneous, moderately enhancing suprasellar mass in hypothalamic/infundibular region. Multiple nonenhancing, hypointense, intratumoral areas are present representing intratumoral hemorrhage or calcification. Postsurgical biopsy proved suprasellar germinoma.
Mentions: These are benign, nonfunctional cysts arising from remnants of squamous epithelium from Rathke's cleft. These cysts are commonly seen in the gland, even in healthy children. They typically arise close to insertion of the stalk, however, may lie on surface of the gland. They are nonfunctional but may cause mass effect on the gland. On MRI [Figure 9], these lesions may appear hyperintense on T1-weighted sequence due to high proteinaceous content. It is often difficult to distinguish a large Rathke's cyst from a cystic craniopharyngioma. Minimal cyst wall enhancement, absence of solid enhancing component, and lack of calcification favors Rathke's cyst over craniopharyngioma. The most common neuroendocrine presentation in Rathke's cyst is hypopituitarism and delayed puberty.[47]

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus