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Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Normal pituitary gland: Sagittal T1-weighted image shows normal appearing pituitary gland with posterior pituitary bright spot (arrow)
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Figure 1: Normal pituitary gland: Sagittal T1-weighted image shows normal appearing pituitary gland with posterior pituitary bright spot (arrow)

Mentions: MR signal intensity of the pituitary gland varies with age. At birth it typically shows high signal on T1-weighted images. By approximately 6 weeks, high signal of anterior pituitary tissue diminishes and becomes similar to that of brain tissue. The posterior pituitary tissue, however, retains bright signal on T1-weighted sequence [Figure 1]. This so-called ‘posterior pituitary bright spot’ is due to high neurophysin content.[1014] During pregnancy and postpartum period, the anterior lobe may appear Tl hyperintense.[15] The pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and cavernous sinuses are vascular structures which are seen to enhance after gadolinium injection; the optic chiasm and hypothalamus, however, do not show enhancement if blood–brain barrier is intact.[17]


Imaging of pediatric pituitary endocrinopathies.

Chaudhary V, Bano S - Indian J Endocrinol Metab (2012)

Normal pituitary gland: Sagittal T1-weighted image shows normal appearing pituitary gland with posterior pituitary bright spot (arrow)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475890&req=5

Figure 1: Normal pituitary gland: Sagittal T1-weighted image shows normal appearing pituitary gland with posterior pituitary bright spot (arrow)
Mentions: MR signal intensity of the pituitary gland varies with age. At birth it typically shows high signal on T1-weighted images. By approximately 6 weeks, high signal of anterior pituitary tissue diminishes and becomes similar to that of brain tissue. The posterior pituitary tissue, however, retains bright signal on T1-weighted sequence [Figure 1]. This so-called ‘posterior pituitary bright spot’ is due to high neurophysin content.[1014] During pregnancy and postpartum period, the anterior lobe may appear Tl hyperintense.[15] The pituitary gland, pituitary stalk and cavernous sinuses are vascular structures which are seen to enhance after gadolinium injection; the optic chiasm and hypothalamus, however, do not show enhancement if blood–brain barrier is intact.[17]

Bottom Line: Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions.Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation.In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiodiagnosis, Employees' State Insurance Corporation (ESIC) Model Hospital, Gurgaon, Haryana, India.

ABSTRACT
Accurate investigation of the hypothalamic-pituitary area is required in pediatric patients for diagnosis of endocrine-related disorders. These disorders include hypopituitarism, growth failure, diencephalic syndrome, delayed puberty, precocious puberty, diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion, and hyperpituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice to visualize hypothalamic-pituitary axis and associated endocrinopathies. Neuroimaging can be normal or disclose abnormalities related to pituitary-hypothalamic axis like (i) congenital and developmental malformations; (ii) tumors; (iii) cystic lesions; and (iv) infectious and inflammatory conditions. Classical midline anomalies like septo-optic dysplasias or corpus callosum agenesis are commonly associated with pituitary endocrinopathies and also need careful evaluation. In this radiological review, we will discuss neuroendocrine disorders related to hypothalamic pituitary-axis.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus