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MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.

Hrašovec S, Glavač D - Front Genet (2012)

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various physiologic and developmental processes and in the initiation and progression of cancer.Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major healthcare concern worldwide and in order to reduce CRC related deaths, research is aimed into the search for some novel screening approaches.In this sense, miRNAs are rapidly emerging as a novel class of biomarkers, with good potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various physiologic and developmental processes and in the initiation and progression of cancer. This class of small, non-coding RNAs critically regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and evidence suggests that they may function as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major healthcare concern worldwide and in order to reduce CRC related deaths, research is aimed into the search for some novel screening approaches. In this sense, miRNAs are rapidly emerging as a novel class of biomarkers, with good potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent findings of the clinicopathological relevance that miRNAs have in CRC initiation, development, and progress, highlighting their potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic use in CRC, focusing on the group of microsatellite instable and the group of hypermethylated CRCs, as well as discussing future prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Genetic model of the adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) pathways, with implicated third – CpG island methylator pathway (CIMP). Involved miRNAs are indicated, together with assigned miRNA UP-(↑) or DOWN-(↓) regulation. Modified from Slaby et al. (2009), Vilar et al. (2011), Valeri et al. (2009), and Zarate et al. (2012).
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Figure 1: Genetic model of the adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) pathways, with implicated third – CpG island methylator pathway (CIMP). Involved miRNAs are indicated, together with assigned miRNA UP-(↑) or DOWN-(↓) regulation. Modified from Slaby et al. (2009), Vilar et al. (2011), Valeri et al. (2009), and Zarate et al. (2012).

Mentions: Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with over 1.2 million new cases each year. CRC incidence rates are rapidly increasing due to the effect of many risk factors, including smoking, physical inactivity, excess weight and obesity, red and processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption (Jemal et al., 2011). CRC is a major health problem. In order to find new diagnostic and therapeutic solutions that could help reduce CRC related deaths, it is important to understand the etiological and biological nature of CRC. Understanding the molecular genesis of CRC is a fundamental step in the identification of novel molecular targets that might be useful in defining the prognosis of CRC patients and tailoring their therapy (Valeri et al., 2009). Progression to CRC is considered a stepwise process, with an accumulation of various genetic and epigenetic alterations, leading to transformation from a normal cell to a premalignant tumor and finally to a malignant and potentially metastatic tumor (normal to adenoma to carcinoma sequence; Oberg et al., 2011). CRC develops through two main genetic pathways, characterized by different forms of genomic instability, as presented in Figure 1.


MicroRNAs as Novel Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer.

Hrašovec S, Glavač D - Front Genet (2012)

Genetic model of the adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) pathways, with implicated third – CpG island methylator pathway (CIMP). Involved miRNAs are indicated, together with assigned miRNA UP-(↑) or DOWN-(↓) regulation. Modified from Slaby et al. (2009), Vilar et al. (2011), Valeri et al. (2009), and Zarate et al. (2012).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475874&req=5

Figure 1: Genetic model of the adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Chromosomal instability (CIN) and microsatellite instability (MSI) pathways, with implicated third – CpG island methylator pathway (CIMP). Involved miRNAs are indicated, together with assigned miRNA UP-(↑) or DOWN-(↓) regulation. Modified from Slaby et al. (2009), Vilar et al. (2011), Valeri et al. (2009), and Zarate et al. (2012).
Mentions: Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in males and the second in females, with over 1.2 million new cases each year. CRC incidence rates are rapidly increasing due to the effect of many risk factors, including smoking, physical inactivity, excess weight and obesity, red and processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption (Jemal et al., 2011). CRC is a major health problem. In order to find new diagnostic and therapeutic solutions that could help reduce CRC related deaths, it is important to understand the etiological and biological nature of CRC. Understanding the molecular genesis of CRC is a fundamental step in the identification of novel molecular targets that might be useful in defining the prognosis of CRC patients and tailoring their therapy (Valeri et al., 2009). Progression to CRC is considered a stepwise process, with an accumulation of various genetic and epigenetic alterations, leading to transformation from a normal cell to a premalignant tumor and finally to a malignant and potentially metastatic tumor (normal to adenoma to carcinoma sequence; Oberg et al., 2011). CRC develops through two main genetic pathways, characterized by different forms of genomic instability, as presented in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various physiologic and developmental processes and in the initiation and progression of cancer.Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major healthcare concern worldwide and in order to reduce CRC related deaths, research is aimed into the search for some novel screening approaches.In this sense, miRNAs are rapidly emerging as a novel class of biomarkers, with good potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana Ljubljana, Slovenia.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in various physiologic and developmental processes and in the initiation and progression of cancer. This class of small, non-coding RNAs critically regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and evidence suggests that they may function as both oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major healthcare concern worldwide and in order to reduce CRC related deaths, research is aimed into the search for some novel screening approaches. In this sense, miRNAs are rapidly emerging as a novel class of biomarkers, with good potential as diagnostic and therapeutic targets. This review summarizes the recent findings of the clinicopathological relevance that miRNAs have in CRC initiation, development, and progress, highlighting their potential diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic use in CRC, focusing on the group of microsatellite instable and the group of hypermethylated CRCs, as well as discussing future prospects.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus