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Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

Tanskanen MM, Westerterp KR, Uusitalo AL, Atalay M, Häkkinen K, Kinnunen HO, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Water deficit associated to higher PA.Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.m.tanskanen@jyu.fi

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC.

Methods: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1). Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC.

Results: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.

Conclusion: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such as mood state.

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Questionnaire responses during the 8-day training course among the control and Ebar groups.Difference compared to: control ## P<0.01, # P<0.05; -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01, *P<0.05; MID $$$ P<0.001, $$ P<0.01, $ P<0.05; POST ¤¤¤ P<0.001, ¤¤ P<0.01, ¤ P<0.05.
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pone-0047771-g003: Questionnaire responses during the 8-day training course among the control and Ebar groups.Difference compared to: control ## P<0.01, # P<0.05; -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01, *P<0.05; MID $$$ P<0.001, $$ P<0.01, $ P<0.05; POST ¤¤¤ P<0.001, ¤¤ P<0.01, ¤ P<0.05.

Mentions: Questionnaire data analysis (Figure 3) revealed significant main effects for both the TC and group for hunger (P<0.001; P  = 0.016, respectively), physical performance (P<0.001; P  = 0.009) and positive mood state (P  = 0.002; P  = 0.014). The Ebar group felt less hungry than the controls POST and +3d POST (P<0.01). Furthermore, Ebar felt themselves less hungry +3d POST compared to the MID (P<0.001), while the controls did not. In addition, Ebar evaluated that their physical performance was better compared to the controls -6d PRE and PRE (P<0.05), and they had an improved positive mood state from MID to +3d POST, while the controls did not. Negative mood state and somatic symptoms had a main effect of TC (P<0.001) by increasing from -6d PRE and PRE to MID and decreasing +3d POST to the PRE levels. Symptoms of URTI did not change.


Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

Tanskanen MM, Westerterp KR, Uusitalo AL, Atalay M, Häkkinen K, Kinnunen HO, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2012)

Questionnaire responses during the 8-day training course among the control and Ebar groups.Difference compared to: control ## P<0.01, # P<0.05; -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01, *P<0.05; MID $$$ P<0.001, $$ P<0.01, $ P<0.05; POST ¤¤¤ P<0.001, ¤¤ P<0.01, ¤ P<0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475712&req=5

pone-0047771-g003: Questionnaire responses during the 8-day training course among the control and Ebar groups.Difference compared to: control ## P<0.01, # P<0.05; -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01, *P<0.05; MID $$$ P<0.001, $$ P<0.01, $ P<0.05; POST ¤¤¤ P<0.001, ¤¤ P<0.01, ¤ P<0.05.
Mentions: Questionnaire data analysis (Figure 3) revealed significant main effects for both the TC and group for hunger (P<0.001; P  = 0.016, respectively), physical performance (P<0.001; P  = 0.009) and positive mood state (P  = 0.002; P  = 0.014). The Ebar group felt less hungry than the controls POST and +3d POST (P<0.01). Furthermore, Ebar felt themselves less hungry +3d POST compared to the MID (P<0.001), while the controls did not. In addition, Ebar evaluated that their physical performance was better compared to the controls -6d PRE and PRE (P<0.05), and they had an improved positive mood state from MID to +3d POST, while the controls did not. Negative mood state and somatic symptoms had a main effect of TC (P<0.001) by increasing from -6d PRE and PRE to MID and decreasing +3d POST to the PRE levels. Symptoms of URTI did not change.

Bottom Line: Water deficit associated to higher PA.Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.m.tanskanen@jyu.fi

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC.

Methods: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1). Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC.

Results: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.

Conclusion: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such as mood state.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus