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Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

Tanskanen MM, Westerterp KR, Uusitalo AL, Atalay M, Häkkinen K, Kinnunen HO, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Water deficit associated to higher PA.Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.m.tanskanen@jyu.fi

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC.

Methods: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1). Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC.

Results: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.

Conclusion: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such as mood state.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes (%) in physical performance in the control and Ebar groups during the study.Differences in change compared to the controls ## P<0.01. Differences in absolute change within the group compared to: -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01; MID $ P<0.05.
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pone-0047771-g002: Changes (%) in physical performance in the control and Ebar groups during the study.Differences in change compared to the controls ## P<0.01. Differences in absolute change within the group compared to: -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01; MID $ P<0.05.

Mentions: Relative changes in physical performance are presented in Figure 2. The following main effects were observed: the running time of 3 km, anaerobic power and hand-grip (P<0.001) of TC and the running time of 3-km (P  = 0.05) and anaerobic power (P  = 0.026) of the group. Hand grip decreased in both groups from PRE to MID but it recovered to the initial levels POST TC. The running time for 3 km improved in both groups as well. However, only the controls had an increase (P  = 0.022) in anaerobic power from the MID to POST. Maximum heart rate during the 3 km (Ebar PRE 191 bpm, POST 191 bpm; control PRE 186 bpm, POST 189 bpm), blood lactate after 3 km (Ebar PRE 11.5 mmol·L−1, POST 12.1 mmol·L−1; control PRE 10.6 mmol·L−1, POST 11.9 mmol·L−1), and vertical jump remained the same in both groups. While the Ebar group improved anaerobic power before the TC (6 day PRE to PRE, P<0.001), the relative change was higher than in the controls (P  = 0.007). Nevertheless, Ebar had higher anaerobic power than the controls in PRE (P  = 0.009), MID (P  = 0.046) and POST (P<0.028), there were no differences between the groups in its change during TC from PRE to POST.


Effects of easy-to-use protein-rich energy bar on energy balance, physical activity and performance during 8 days of sustained physical exertion.

Tanskanen MM, Westerterp KR, Uusitalo AL, Atalay M, Häkkinen K, Kinnunen HO, Kyröläinen H - PLoS ONE (2012)

Changes (%) in physical performance in the control and Ebar groups during the study.Differences in change compared to the controls ## P<0.01. Differences in absolute change within the group compared to: -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01; MID $ P<0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475712&req=5

pone-0047771-g002: Changes (%) in physical performance in the control and Ebar groups during the study.Differences in change compared to the controls ## P<0.01. Differences in absolute change within the group compared to: -6 PRE ∧∧∧ P<0.001, ∧ P<0.05; PRE ***P<0.001, **P<0.01; MID $ P<0.05.
Mentions: Relative changes in physical performance are presented in Figure 2. The following main effects were observed: the running time of 3 km, anaerobic power and hand-grip (P<0.001) of TC and the running time of 3-km (P  = 0.05) and anaerobic power (P  = 0.026) of the group. Hand grip decreased in both groups from PRE to MID but it recovered to the initial levels POST TC. The running time for 3 km improved in both groups as well. However, only the controls had an increase (P  = 0.022) in anaerobic power from the MID to POST. Maximum heart rate during the 3 km (Ebar PRE 191 bpm, POST 191 bpm; control PRE 186 bpm, POST 189 bpm), blood lactate after 3 km (Ebar PRE 11.5 mmol·L−1, POST 12.1 mmol·L−1; control PRE 10.6 mmol·L−1, POST 11.9 mmol·L−1), and vertical jump remained the same in both groups. While the Ebar group improved anaerobic power before the TC (6 day PRE to PRE, P<0.001), the relative change was higher than in the controls (P  = 0.007). Nevertheless, Ebar had higher anaerobic power than the controls in PRE (P  = 0.009), MID (P  = 0.046) and POST (P<0.028), there were no differences between the groups in its change during TC from PRE to POST.

Bottom Line: Water deficit associated to higher PA.Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. minna.m.tanskanen@jyu.fi

ABSTRACT

Background: Previous military studies have shown an energy deficit during a strenuous field training course (TC). This study aimed to determine the effects of energy bar supplementation on energy balance, physical activity (PA), physical performance and well-being and to evaluate ad libitum fluid intake during wintertime 8-day strenuous TC.

Methods: Twenty-six men (age 20±1 yr.) were randomly divided into two groups: The control group (n = 12) had traditional field rations and the experimental (Ebar) group (n = 14) field rations plus energy bars of 4.1 MJ•day(-1). Energy (EI) and water intake was recorded. Fat-free mass and water loss were measured with deuterium dilution and elimination, respectively. The energy expenditure was calculated using the intake/balance method and energy availability as (EI/estimated basal metabolic rate). PA was monitored using an accelerometer. Physical performance was measured and questionnaires of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI), hunger and mood state were recorded before, during and after TC.

Results: Ebar had a higher EI and energy availability than the controls. However, decreases in body mass and fat mass were similar in both groups representing an energy deficit. No differences were observed between the groups in PA, water balance, URTI symptoms and changes in physical performance and fat-free mass. Ebar felt less hunger after TC than the controls and they had improved positive mood state during the latter part of TC while controls did not. Water deficit associated to higher PA. Furthermore, URTI symptoms and negative mood state associated negatively with energy availability and PA.

Conclusion: An easy-to-use protein-rich energy bars did not prevent energy deficit nor influence PA during an 8-day TC. The high content of protein in the bars might have induced satiation decreasing energy intake from field rations. PA and energy intake seems to be primarily affected by other factors than energy supplementation such as mood state.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus