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Long-term effects of irrigation with waste water on soil AM fungi diversity and microbial activities: the implications for agro-ecosystem resilience.

Alguacil Mdel M, Torrecillas E, Torres P, García-Orenes F, Roldán A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: After 43 years, the soil irrigated with fresh water (FW) had higher AMF diversity than soils irrigated with WW.Microbial activities were significantly higher in the soils irrigated with WW than in those irrigated with FW.Therefore, as no negative effects were observed on crop vitality and productivity, it seems that the ecosystem resilience gave rise to the selection of AMF species better able to thrive in soils with higher microbial activity and, thus, to higher soil fertility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIC-Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. mmalguacil@cebas.csic.es

ABSTRACT
The effects of irrigation with treated urban wastewater (WW) on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) diversity and soil microbial activities were assayed on a long-term basis in a semiarid orange-tree orchard. After 43 years, the soil irrigated with fresh water (FW) had higher AMF diversity than soils irrigated with WW. Microbial activities were significantly higher in the soils irrigated with WW than in those irrigated with FW. Therefore, as no negative effects were observed on crop vitality and productivity, it seems that the ecosystem resilience gave rise to the selection of AMF species better able to thrive in soils with higher microbial activity and, thus, to higher soil fertility.

Show MeSH
Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree showing AMF sequences isolated from soil irrigated with freshwater (FW) and treated wastewater (WW) and reference sequences from GeneBank.Numbers above the branches indicate the bootstrap values (above 80%, 1000 replicates) of the NJ analysis; numbers below the branches indicate the bootstrap values of the maximum likelihood analysis. Sequences obtained in the present study are shown in bold type. Mortierella polycephala was used as out-group.
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pone-0047680-g001: Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree showing AMF sequences isolated from soil irrigated with freshwater (FW) and treated wastewater (WW) and reference sequences from GeneBank.Numbers above the branches indicate the bootstrap values (above 80%, 1000 replicates) of the NJ analysis; numbers below the branches indicate the bootstrap values of the maximum likelihood analysis. Sequences obtained in the present study are shown in bold type. Mortierella polycephala was used as out-group.

Mentions: In this study, 320 clones from 10 clone libraries (five repetitions per treatment) were screened by PCR; out of these, 170 clones containing an LSU rDNA fragment were sequenced and 145 sequences of AM fungal origin were grouped in 19 AMF sequence types, all belonging to the family Glomeraceae and with similarities varying from 97 to 100% and bootstrap values ≥80% (Fig. 1).


Long-term effects of irrigation with waste water on soil AM fungi diversity and microbial activities: the implications for agro-ecosystem resilience.

Alguacil Mdel M, Torrecillas E, Torres P, García-Orenes F, Roldán A - PLoS ONE (2012)

Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree showing AMF sequences isolated from soil irrigated with freshwater (FW) and treated wastewater (WW) and reference sequences from GeneBank.Numbers above the branches indicate the bootstrap values (above 80%, 1000 replicates) of the NJ analysis; numbers below the branches indicate the bootstrap values of the maximum likelihood analysis. Sequences obtained in the present study are shown in bold type. Mortierella polycephala was used as out-group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475709&req=5

pone-0047680-g001: Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree showing AMF sequences isolated from soil irrigated with freshwater (FW) and treated wastewater (WW) and reference sequences from GeneBank.Numbers above the branches indicate the bootstrap values (above 80%, 1000 replicates) of the NJ analysis; numbers below the branches indicate the bootstrap values of the maximum likelihood analysis. Sequences obtained in the present study are shown in bold type. Mortierella polycephala was used as out-group.
Mentions: In this study, 320 clones from 10 clone libraries (five repetitions per treatment) were screened by PCR; out of these, 170 clones containing an LSU rDNA fragment were sequenced and 145 sequences of AM fungal origin were grouped in 19 AMF sequence types, all belonging to the family Glomeraceae and with similarities varying from 97 to 100% and bootstrap values ≥80% (Fig. 1).

Bottom Line: After 43 years, the soil irrigated with fresh water (FW) had higher AMF diversity than soils irrigated with WW.Microbial activities were significantly higher in the soils irrigated with WW than in those irrigated with FW.Therefore, as no negative effects were observed on crop vitality and productivity, it seems that the ecosystem resilience gave rise to the selection of AMF species better able to thrive in soils with higher microbial activity and, thus, to higher soil fertility.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSIC-Centro de Edafología y Biología Aplicada del Segura, Department of Soil and Water Conservation, Campus de Espinardo, Murcia, Spain. mmalguacil@cebas.csic.es

ABSTRACT
The effects of irrigation with treated urban wastewater (WW) on the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) diversity and soil microbial activities were assayed on a long-term basis in a semiarid orange-tree orchard. After 43 years, the soil irrigated with fresh water (FW) had higher AMF diversity than soils irrigated with WW. Microbial activities were significantly higher in the soils irrigated with WW than in those irrigated with FW. Therefore, as no negative effects were observed on crop vitality and productivity, it seems that the ecosystem resilience gave rise to the selection of AMF species better able to thrive in soils with higher microbial activity and, thus, to higher soil fertility.

Show MeSH