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Chemical alarm cues are conserved within the coral reef fish family Pomacentridae.

Mitchell MD, Cowman PF, McCormick MI - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control.There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related.These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. matthew.mitchell1@my.jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

Show MeSH
Relationship between antipredator responses and divergence times.The relationship between divergence time from the most recent common ancestor and the intensity of antipredator response of juvenile Amphiprion percula exposed to chemical alarm cues from various heterospecific species within the family Pomacentridae. Circles represent in the mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of A. percula to chemical alarm cues of each heterospecific species.
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pone-0047428-g002: Relationship between antipredator responses and divergence times.The relationship between divergence time from the most recent common ancestor and the intensity of antipredator response of juvenile Amphiprion percula exposed to chemical alarm cues from various heterospecific species within the family Pomacentridae. Circles represent in the mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of A. percula to chemical alarm cues of each heterospecific species.

Mentions: There was a significant relationship between the response to pomacentrid chemical alarm cues and the timing of divergence of the MRCA of the donor species and A. percula, which accounted for 66% of the intensity in antipredator response (r2 = 0.66, F1,88 = 16.72, p<0.001; Fig. 2). The greatest reduction in foraging rate was displayed by individuals exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics and A. melanopus, the intensity of response then decreased as the donor species became more distantly related (Fig. 2).


Chemical alarm cues are conserved within the coral reef fish family Pomacentridae.

Mitchell MD, Cowman PF, McCormick MI - PLoS ONE (2012)

Relationship between antipredator responses and divergence times.The relationship between divergence time from the most recent common ancestor and the intensity of antipredator response of juvenile Amphiprion percula exposed to chemical alarm cues from various heterospecific species within the family Pomacentridae. Circles represent in the mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of A. percula to chemical alarm cues of each heterospecific species.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475700&req=5

pone-0047428-g002: Relationship between antipredator responses and divergence times.The relationship between divergence time from the most recent common ancestor and the intensity of antipredator response of juvenile Amphiprion percula exposed to chemical alarm cues from various heterospecific species within the family Pomacentridae. Circles represent in the mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of A. percula to chemical alarm cues of each heterospecific species.
Mentions: There was a significant relationship between the response to pomacentrid chemical alarm cues and the timing of divergence of the MRCA of the donor species and A. percula, which accounted for 66% of the intensity in antipredator response (r2 = 0.66, F1,88 = 16.72, p<0.001; Fig. 2). The greatest reduction in foraging rate was displayed by individuals exposed to alarm cues from conspecifics and A. melanopus, the intensity of response then decreased as the donor species became more distantly related (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control.There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related.These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. matthew.mitchell1@my.jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

Show MeSH