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Chemical alarm cues are conserved within the coral reef fish family Pomacentridae.

Mitchell MD, Cowman PF, McCormick MI - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control.There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related.These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. matthew.mitchell1@my.jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

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The phylogeny of Pomacentridae study species and antipredator response to heterospecific alarm cues.The phylogenetic relationship and antipredator response of Amphiprion percula, to heterospecific family members (Amphiprion melanopus ¸ Pomacentrus moluccensis, Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Chromis atripectoralis), a distantly related sympatric prey guild member (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) or a saltwater control. a) A chronogram (modified from [45]) displaying the divergence times of the MRCA of the focal species, A. percula to each of the heterospecific donor lineages within the family Pomacentridae. Ages are calibrated to millions of years before present. b) The mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of juvenile A. percula exposed to the chemical alarm cues of five heterospecific species and a saltwater control. Fishes are ordered with respect to their relatedness to A. percula. Letters below bars indicate Tukey’s groupings.
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pone-0047428-g001: The phylogeny of Pomacentridae study species and antipredator response to heterospecific alarm cues.The phylogenetic relationship and antipredator response of Amphiprion percula, to heterospecific family members (Amphiprion melanopus ¸ Pomacentrus moluccensis, Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Chromis atripectoralis), a distantly related sympatric prey guild member (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) or a saltwater control. a) A chronogram (modified from [45]) displaying the divergence times of the MRCA of the focal species, A. percula to each of the heterospecific donor lineages within the family Pomacentridae. Ages are calibrated to millions of years before present. b) The mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of juvenile A. percula exposed to the chemical alarm cues of five heterospecific species and a saltwater control. Fishes are ordered with respect to their relatedness to A. percula. Letters below bars indicate Tukey’s groupings.

Mentions: To assess if the magnitude of an antipredator response to a heterospecific alarm cue is regulated by the phylogenetic relatedness of the focal species to the heterospecific species, we used the ‘time of divergence’ of our focal species (A. percula) and the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) to the heterospecific lineage in question. We made use of a recently published chronogram (time-calibrated phylogeny) of the family Pomacentridae [45] to find the divergence time of the MRCA of A. percula and the heterospecific alarm cue donors (Table 1). The pomacentrid chronogram was reconstructed using Bayesian age estimation methods and fossil calibration techniques (see methods [45]). It includes all of the pomacentrid taxa used in this study and all major lineages of the family Pomacentridae. The timing of divergence (TD) of each pomacentrid heterospecific from A. percula was taken as the age of the MRCA of both lineages (TMRCA), minus the age of the node representing the origin of A. percula (TAp; Fig. 1a; Table 1). This correction for the age of the A. percula lineage standardises the MRCA age to a metric that is specific to an ancestor node of A. percula.


Chemical alarm cues are conserved within the coral reef fish family Pomacentridae.

Mitchell MD, Cowman PF, McCormick MI - PLoS ONE (2012)

The phylogeny of Pomacentridae study species and antipredator response to heterospecific alarm cues.The phylogenetic relationship and antipredator response of Amphiprion percula, to heterospecific family members (Amphiprion melanopus ¸ Pomacentrus moluccensis, Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Chromis atripectoralis), a distantly related sympatric prey guild member (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) or a saltwater control. a) A chronogram (modified from [45]) displaying the divergence times of the MRCA of the focal species, A. percula to each of the heterospecific donor lineages within the family Pomacentridae. Ages are calibrated to millions of years before present. b) The mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of juvenile A. percula exposed to the chemical alarm cues of five heterospecific species and a saltwater control. Fishes are ordered with respect to their relatedness to A. percula. Letters below bars indicate Tukey’s groupings.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475700&req=5

pone-0047428-g001: The phylogeny of Pomacentridae study species and antipredator response to heterospecific alarm cues.The phylogenetic relationship and antipredator response of Amphiprion percula, to heterospecific family members (Amphiprion melanopus ¸ Pomacentrus moluccensis, Acanthochromis polyacanthus and Chromis atripectoralis), a distantly related sympatric prey guild member (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) or a saltwater control. a) A chronogram (modified from [45]) displaying the divergence times of the MRCA of the focal species, A. percula to each of the heterospecific donor lineages within the family Pomacentridae. Ages are calibrated to millions of years before present. b) The mean change in foraging rate (±SE) of juvenile A. percula exposed to the chemical alarm cues of five heterospecific species and a saltwater control. Fishes are ordered with respect to their relatedness to A. percula. Letters below bars indicate Tukey’s groupings.
Mentions: To assess if the magnitude of an antipredator response to a heterospecific alarm cue is regulated by the phylogenetic relatedness of the focal species to the heterospecific species, we used the ‘time of divergence’ of our focal species (A. percula) and the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) to the heterospecific lineage in question. We made use of a recently published chronogram (time-calibrated phylogeny) of the family Pomacentridae [45] to find the divergence time of the MRCA of A. percula and the heterospecific alarm cue donors (Table 1). The pomacentrid chronogram was reconstructed using Bayesian age estimation methods and fossil calibration techniques (see methods [45]). It includes all of the pomacentrid taxa used in this study and all major lineages of the family Pomacentridae. The timing of divergence (TD) of each pomacentrid heterospecific from A. percula was taken as the age of the MRCA of both lineages (TMRCA), minus the age of the node representing the origin of A. percula (TAp; Fig. 1a; Table 1). This correction for the age of the A. percula lineage standardises the MRCA age to a metric that is specific to an ancestor node of A. percula.

Bottom Line: Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control.There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related.These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. matthew.mitchell1@my.jcu.edu.au

ABSTRACT
Fishes are known to use chemical alarm cues from both conspecifics and heterospecifics to assess local predation risks and enhance predator detection. Yet it is unknown how recognition of heterospecific cues arises for coral reef fishes. Here, we test if naïve juvenile fish have an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues. We also examine if there is a relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response to these cues and the degree to which species are related to each other. Naïve juvenile anemone fish, Amphiprion percula, were tested to see if they displayed antipredator responses to chemical alarm cues from four closely related heterospecific species (family Pomacentridae), a distantly related sympatric species (Asterropteryx semipunctatus) and a saltwater (control). Juveniles displayed significant reductions in foraging rate when exposed to all four confamilial heterospecific species but they did not respond to the distantly related sympatric species or the saltwater control. There was also a strong relationship between the intensity of the antipredator response and the extent to which species were related, with responses weakening as species became more distantly related. These findings demonstrate that chemical alarm cues are conserved within the pomacentrid family, providing juveniles with an innate recognition of heterospecific alarm cues as predicted by the phylogenetic relatedness hypothesis.

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