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MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time.

Zheng HX, Yan S, Qin ZD, Jin L - Sci Rep (2012)

Bottom Line: With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas.Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions.Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Agriculture resulted in extensive population growths and human activities. However, whether major human expansions started after Neolithic Time still remained controversial. With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas. From these random samples, we identified the expansion lineages and reconstructed the historical demographic variations. In all the three continents, we found that most major lineage expansions (11 out of 15 star lineages in Africa, all autochthonous lineages in Europe and America) coalesced before the first appearance of agriculture. Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions. Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

European expansion lineages from median-joining network.Star expansions were selected from median-joining network of 413 European mtDNA coding region sequences corresponding to rCRS positions 577–16023.Blue, GBR; purple, FIN; yellow, CEU; Cyan, TSI; Green, IBS. Red squares and numbers indicate clusters with distinct expansions. 1, HV; 2, H; 3, H1; 4, H3; 5, V; 6, T2; 7, T2b; 8, T1; 9, U5a; 10, U5a1; 11, J1c; 12, J1c3; 13, W; 14, U2'3'4'7'8'9; 15, K1. Branch length is proportional to steps of mutations and red arrows indicate the root.
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f4: European expansion lineages from median-joining network.Star expansions were selected from median-joining network of 413 European mtDNA coding region sequences corresponding to rCRS positions 577–16023.Blue, GBR; purple, FIN; yellow, CEU; Cyan, TSI; Green, IBS. Red squares and numbers indicate clusters with distinct expansions. 1, HV; 2, H; 3, H1; 4, H3; 5, V; 6, T2; 7, T2b; 8, T1; 9, U5a; 10, U5a1; 11, J1c; 12, J1c3; 13, W; 14, U2'3'4'7'8'9; 15, K1. Branch length is proportional to steps of mutations and red arrows indicate the root.

Mentions: According to the median-joining network analysis, 15 star lineages were observed in Figure 4. Most of them (HV, H, H1, H3, J1c, T1, T2, U5a1, U5a, K1, V, W, U2'3'4'7'8'9) coalesced before 10 kya although 2 lineages (J1c3 and T2b) might expand in 10 kya. Except HV and U2'3'4'7'8'9, other lineages expanded about after LGM. A very distinct and major expansion in Figure 4 is the H lineage, and subsequent expansions of haplogroups H1 and H3 were also important in Europe. About 44.5% of European samples in current analysis belonged to the H expansion, which happened right after LGM according to our calculation (Table S3).


MtDNA analysis of global populations support that major population expansions began before Neolithic Time.

Zheng HX, Yan S, Qin ZD, Jin L - Sci Rep (2012)

European expansion lineages from median-joining network.Star expansions were selected from median-joining network of 413 European mtDNA coding region sequences corresponding to rCRS positions 577–16023.Blue, GBR; purple, FIN; yellow, CEU; Cyan, TSI; Green, IBS. Red squares and numbers indicate clusters with distinct expansions. 1, HV; 2, H; 3, H1; 4, H3; 5, V; 6, T2; 7, T2b; 8, T1; 9, U5a; 10, U5a1; 11, J1c; 12, J1c3; 13, W; 14, U2'3'4'7'8'9; 15, K1. Branch length is proportional to steps of mutations and red arrows indicate the root.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475341&req=5

f4: European expansion lineages from median-joining network.Star expansions were selected from median-joining network of 413 European mtDNA coding region sequences corresponding to rCRS positions 577–16023.Blue, GBR; purple, FIN; yellow, CEU; Cyan, TSI; Green, IBS. Red squares and numbers indicate clusters with distinct expansions. 1, HV; 2, H; 3, H1; 4, H3; 5, V; 6, T2; 7, T2b; 8, T1; 9, U5a; 10, U5a1; 11, J1c; 12, J1c3; 13, W; 14, U2'3'4'7'8'9; 15, K1. Branch length is proportional to steps of mutations and red arrows indicate the root.
Mentions: According to the median-joining network analysis, 15 star lineages were observed in Figure 4. Most of them (HV, H, H1, H3, J1c, T1, T2, U5a1, U5a, K1, V, W, U2'3'4'7'8'9) coalesced before 10 kya although 2 lineages (J1c3 and T2b) might expand in 10 kya. Except HV and U2'3'4'7'8'9, other lineages expanded about after LGM. A very distinct and major expansion in Figure 4 is the H lineage, and subsequent expansions of haplogroups H1 and H3 were also important in Europe. About 44.5% of European samples in current analysis belonged to the H expansion, which happened right after LGM according to our calculation (Table S3).

Bottom Line: With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas.Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions.Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and Center for Evolutionary Biology, School of Life Sciences and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT
Agriculture resulted in extensive population growths and human activities. However, whether major human expansions started after Neolithic Time still remained controversial. With the benefit of 1000 Genome Project, we were able to analyze a total of 910 samples from 11 populations in Africa, Europe and Americas. From these random samples, we identified the expansion lineages and reconstructed the historical demographic variations. In all the three continents, we found that most major lineage expansions (11 out of 15 star lineages in Africa, all autochthonous lineages in Europe and America) coalesced before the first appearance of agriculture. Furthermore, major population expansions were estimated after Last Glacial Maximum but before Neolithic Time, also corresponding to the result of major lineage expansions. Considering results in current and previous study, global mtDNA evidence showed that rising temperature after Last Glacial Maximum offered amiable environments and might be the most important factor for prehistorical human expansions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus