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Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude methanolic extract of red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum.

Cavalcante-Silva LH, da Matta CB, de Araújo MV, Barbosa-Filho JM, de Lira DP, de Oliveira Santos BV, de Miranda GE, Alexandre-Moreira MS - Mar Drugs (2012)

Bottom Line: While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01).Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.However, more studies need to be conducted to confirm these properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: LaFI-Laboratory of Pharmacology and Immunity, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió 57020-720, AL, Brazil. luiz0710@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25-30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 10(6) leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 10(6) leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need to be conducted to confirm these properties.

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Antinociceptive effect of the BT-MeOH (100 mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (35.7 mg/kg, p.o.) on early phase (0–5 min, panel A) or late phase (15–30 min, panel B) of formalin-induced nociception in mice. Each column represents the mean ± S.E.M. of six animals. Statistical differences between the treated and the control groups were evaluated by ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. The asterisks denote the level of significance in comparison with the control group, ** p < 0.01.
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marinedrugs-10-01977-f003: Antinociceptive effect of the BT-MeOH (100 mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (35.7 mg/kg, p.o.) on early phase (0–5 min, panel A) or late phase (15–30 min, panel B) of formalin-induced nociception in mice. Each column represents the mean ± S.E.M. of six animals. Statistical differences between the treated and the control groups were evaluated by ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. The asterisks denote the level of significance in comparison with the control group, ** p < 0.01.

Mentions: Neurogenic and inflammatory pain was evaluated using the formalin-induced nociception assay. In this test, BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase (Figure 3A), while the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01) (Figure 3B). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). These data support the hot plate results, given that central analgesic drugs such as opioids are able to inhibit both phases in the formalin test, while NSAIDs and corticoids normally inhibit only the inflammatory phase [60,61]. The injection of formalin induces a biphasic behavioral response. The neurogenic phase begins shortly after the injection, occurring at about 5 min, and it results from the direct stimulation of nociceptors [62]. After a quiescent period, the inflammatory phase occurs between the 15th and 30th min. In this phase, there is release of inflammatory mediators (i.e., histamine, prostaglandins, TNF-α and IL-1β) [63,64].


Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of crude methanolic extract of red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum.

Cavalcante-Silva LH, da Matta CB, de Araújo MV, Barbosa-Filho JM, de Lira DP, de Oliveira Santos BV, de Miranda GE, Alexandre-Moreira MS - Mar Drugs (2012)

Antinociceptive effect of the BT-MeOH (100 mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (35.7 mg/kg, p.o.) on early phase (0–5 min, panel A) or late phase (15–30 min, panel B) of formalin-induced nociception in mice. Each column represents the mean ± S.E.M. of six animals. Statistical differences between the treated and the control groups were evaluated by ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. The asterisks denote the level of significance in comparison with the control group, ** p < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475267&req=5

marinedrugs-10-01977-f003: Antinociceptive effect of the BT-MeOH (100 mg/kg, p.o) and indomethacin (35.7 mg/kg, p.o.) on early phase (0–5 min, panel A) or late phase (15–30 min, panel B) of formalin-induced nociception in mice. Each column represents the mean ± S.E.M. of six animals. Statistical differences between the treated and the control groups were evaluated by ANOVA and Dunnett’s test. The asterisks denote the level of significance in comparison with the control group, ** p < 0.01.
Mentions: Neurogenic and inflammatory pain was evaluated using the formalin-induced nociception assay. In this test, BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase (Figure 3A), while the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01) (Figure 3B). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). These data support the hot plate results, given that central analgesic drugs such as opioids are able to inhibit both phases in the formalin test, while NSAIDs and corticoids normally inhibit only the inflammatory phase [60,61]. The injection of formalin induces a biphasic behavioral response. The neurogenic phase begins shortly after the injection, occurring at about 5 min, and it results from the direct stimulation of nociceptors [62]. After a quiescent period, the inflammatory phase occurs between the 15th and 30th min. In this phase, there is release of inflammatory mediators (i.e., histamine, prostaglandins, TNF-α and IL-1β) [63,64].

Bottom Line: While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01).Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.However, more studies need to be conducted to confirm these properties.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: LaFI-Laboratory of Pharmacology and Immunity, Institute of Biological Sciences and Health, Federal University of Alagoas, Maceió 57020-720, AL, Brazil. luiz0710@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The marine environment is an extraordinary reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of which exhibit chemical and structural features not found in terrestrial natural products. In this regard, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a crude methanolic extract of the red alga Bryothamnion triquetrum (BT-MeOH) in murine models. Groups of Swiss mice of both sexes (25-30 g) were used throughout the experiments. The potential antinociceptive of BT-MeOH was evaluated by means of the following tests: acetic acid-induced writhing, hot-plate test and glutamate- and formalin-induced nociception. The anti-inflammatory activity of BT-MeOH was investigated using the zymosan A-induced peritonitis test. The tests were conducted using 100 mg/kg (p.o.) BT-MeOH, 33.3 mg/kg (p.o.) dipyrone, 35.7 mg/kg (p.o.) indomethacin and 5.7 mg/kg (s.c.) morphine. The extract and all standard drugs were administered 40 min before the nociceptive/inflammatory stimulus. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, BT-MeOH and dipyrone inhibited the nociceptive response by 55.9% (22.2 ± 2.0 writhings; p < 0.01) and 80.9% (9.6 ± 2.1 writhings; p < 0.01). In the hot-plate test, BT-MeOH did not increase the latency time of the animals in the time evaluated. In addition, BT-MeOH inhibited glutamate-induced nociception by 50.1%. While BT-MeOH did not inhibit the neurogenic phase in formalin-induced nociception, the inflammatory phase was inhibited by 53.1% (66.8 ± 14.2 s; p < 0.01). Indomethacin inhibited the inflammatory phase by 60.2% (56.8 ± 8.7 s; p < 0.01). In the zymosan-induced peritonitis test, BT-MeOH inhibited 55.6% (6.6 ± 0.2 × 10(6) leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01) of leukocyte migration, while indomethacin inhibited 78.1% (3.2 ± 0.1 × 10(6) leukocytes/mL; p < 0.01). Based on the results obtained in this study, we conclude that BT-MeOH has peripheral antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. However, more studies need to be conducted to confirm these properties.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus