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Consequences of essential fatty acids.

Lands B - Nutrients (2012)

Bottom Line: Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable.That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health.The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: wlands@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Associated predictive risk factors and causal mediating risk factors. Among the many conditions associated with developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, one is imbalanced intakes of n-3 and n-6 EFA (shown at the left) and another is too many calories per meal (noted at the center). Large clinical trials have been designed to lower some calorie-related biomarkers associated with health risk (noted at the right).
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nutrients-04-01338-f003: Associated predictive risk factors and causal mediating risk factors. Among the many conditions associated with developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, one is imbalanced intakes of n-3 and n-6 EFA (shown at the left) and another is too many calories per meal (noted at the center). Large clinical trials have been designed to lower some calorie-related biomarkers associated with health risk (noted at the right).

Mentions: There is wide agreement that all risk factors can predict (to differing degrees) the likelihood of an impending healthcare problem. There is also wide agreement that not all predictive risk factors are causal factors. Figure 3 shows the context of molecular events that link voluntary food choices to preventable signs and symptoms of CVD. The EFA-based causal events on the left side of the figure illustrate how omega-3 fatty acids aid cardiovascular health as described in detail in earlier parts of this review. Intervention will likely be more effective when it prevents causal rather than non-causal conditions.


Consequences of essential fatty acids.

Lands B - Nutrients (2012)

Associated predictive risk factors and causal mediating risk factors. Among the many conditions associated with developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, one is imbalanced intakes of n-3 and n-6 EFA (shown at the left) and another is too many calories per meal (noted at the center). Large clinical trials have been designed to lower some calorie-related biomarkers associated with health risk (noted at the right).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475243&req=5

nutrients-04-01338-f003: Associated predictive risk factors and causal mediating risk factors. Among the many conditions associated with developing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, one is imbalanced intakes of n-3 and n-6 EFA (shown at the left) and another is too many calories per meal (noted at the center). Large clinical trials have been designed to lower some calorie-related biomarkers associated with health risk (noted at the right).
Mentions: There is wide agreement that all risk factors can predict (to differing degrees) the likelihood of an impending healthcare problem. There is also wide agreement that not all predictive risk factors are causal factors. Figure 3 shows the context of molecular events that link voluntary food choices to preventable signs and symptoms of CVD. The EFA-based causal events on the left side of the figure illustrate how omega-3 fatty acids aid cardiovascular health as described in detail in earlier parts of this review. Intervention will likely be more effective when it prevents causal rather than non-causal conditions.

Bottom Line: Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable.That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health.The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: wlands@mail.nih.gov

ABSTRACT
Essential fatty acids (EFA) are nutrients that form an amazingly large array of bioactive mediators that act on a large family of selective receptors. Nearly every cell and tissue in the human body expresses at least one of these receptors, allowing EFA-based signaling to influence nearly every aspect of human physiology. In this way, the health consequences of specific gene-environment interactions with these nutrients are more extensive than often recognized. The metabolic transformations have similar competitive dynamics for the n-3 and n-6 homologs when converting dietary EFA from the external environment of foods into the highly unsaturated fatty acid (HUFA) esters that accumulate in the internal environment of cells and tissues. In contrast, the formation and action of bioactive mediators during tissue responses to stimuli tend to selectively create more intense consequences for n-6 than n-3 homologs. Both n-3 and n-6 nutrients have beneficial actions, but many common health disorders are undesired consequences of excessive actions of tissue n-6 HUFA which are preventable. This review considers the possibility of preventing imbalances in dietary n-3 and n-6 nutrients with informed voluntary food choices. That action may prevent the unintended consequences that come from eating imbalanced diets which support excessive chronic actions of n-6 mediators that harm human health. The consequences from preventing n-3 and n-6 nutrient imbalances on a nationwide scale may be very large, and they need careful evaluation and implementation to avoid further harmful consequences for the national economy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus