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Unique diagnostic and therapeutic roles of porphyrins and phthalocyanines in photodynamic therapy, imaging and theranostics.

Josefsen LB, Boyle RW - Theranostics (2012)

Bottom Line: Porphyrinic molecules have a unique theranostic role in disease therapy; they have been used to image, detect and treat different forms of diseased tissue including age-related macular degeneration and a number of different cancer types.Current focus is on the clinical imaging of tumour tissue; targeted delivery of photosensitisers and the potential of photosensitisers in multimodal biomedical theranostic nanoplatforms.The roles of porphyrinic molecules in imaging and pdt, along with research into improving their selective uptake in diseased tissue and their utility in theranostic applications are highlighted in this Review.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, The University Of Hull, Kingston-Upon-Hull, HU6 7RX, U.K.

ABSTRACT
Porphyrinic molecules have a unique theranostic role in disease therapy; they have been used to image, detect and treat different forms of diseased tissue including age-related macular degeneration and a number of different cancer types. Current focus is on the clinical imaging of tumour tissue; targeted delivery of photosensitisers and the potential of photosensitisers in multimodal biomedical theranostic nanoplatforms. The roles of porphyrinic molecules in imaging and pdt, along with research into improving their selective uptake in diseased tissue and their utility in theranostic applications are highlighted in this Review.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

TOOKAD®
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Figure 20: TOOKAD®

Mentions: In the early stages of lung cancer pdt can provide long term survival opportunities (potential cure); in the mid-stages, where the extent of the disease can be more accurately diagnosed with fluorescence imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography, results can match those of surgical resection 188. Systemic photosensitiser administration, followed by bronchoscopic illumination is used to achieve cancer necrosis; a combination of imaging and pdt (theranostics) can therefore provide improved therapeutic strategies for lung cancers 188. The combination of the modalities can also help in laboratory-based disease research; fluorescence imaging can be utilised in studying basic pdt mechanisms; understanding pdt tissue interaction; developing disease models; and as a marker to therapy response 194. The two modalities (fluorescence imaging and pdt) work on the same basic principles - illumination and photochemistry but differ greatly in their desired outcome - fluorescence imaging has minimal/no cytotoxicity due to the low fluence rate used to generate light activation, whereas in pdt, where a cytotoxic effect is the goal of the treatment, a high fluence rate is used to generate the singlet oxygen necessary to elicit cell death 194. Both the uniqueness and major advantage of using fluorescence imaging and pdt in combination with each other is that the same entity can act as both the imaging and therapeutic agent, the only known exception to this is TOOKAD®, the palladium-complexed bacteriochlorophyll (figure 20); TOOKAD® has a negligible fluorescence quantum yield 229, 230. This emphasises the potential of fluorescence imaging in pdt for the diagnosis, guided therapy and monitoring of surgery (or in other therapies) - the therapeutic outcome in the treatment of disease can be made more robust by utilising all of the available forms of imaging and guidance techniques/technologies. Such theranostic modalities are likely to become more routinely used in the treatment and management of diseases in the future 194.


Unique diagnostic and therapeutic roles of porphyrins and phthalocyanines in photodynamic therapy, imaging and theranostics.

Josefsen LB, Boyle RW - Theranostics (2012)

TOOKAD®
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475217&req=5

Figure 20: TOOKAD®
Mentions: In the early stages of lung cancer pdt can provide long term survival opportunities (potential cure); in the mid-stages, where the extent of the disease can be more accurately diagnosed with fluorescence imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography, results can match those of surgical resection 188. Systemic photosensitiser administration, followed by bronchoscopic illumination is used to achieve cancer necrosis; a combination of imaging and pdt (theranostics) can therefore provide improved therapeutic strategies for lung cancers 188. The combination of the modalities can also help in laboratory-based disease research; fluorescence imaging can be utilised in studying basic pdt mechanisms; understanding pdt tissue interaction; developing disease models; and as a marker to therapy response 194. The two modalities (fluorescence imaging and pdt) work on the same basic principles - illumination and photochemistry but differ greatly in their desired outcome - fluorescence imaging has minimal/no cytotoxicity due to the low fluence rate used to generate light activation, whereas in pdt, where a cytotoxic effect is the goal of the treatment, a high fluence rate is used to generate the singlet oxygen necessary to elicit cell death 194. Both the uniqueness and major advantage of using fluorescence imaging and pdt in combination with each other is that the same entity can act as both the imaging and therapeutic agent, the only known exception to this is TOOKAD®, the palladium-complexed bacteriochlorophyll (figure 20); TOOKAD® has a negligible fluorescence quantum yield 229, 230. This emphasises the potential of fluorescence imaging in pdt for the diagnosis, guided therapy and monitoring of surgery (or in other therapies) - the therapeutic outcome in the treatment of disease can be made more robust by utilising all of the available forms of imaging and guidance techniques/technologies. Such theranostic modalities are likely to become more routinely used in the treatment and management of diseases in the future 194.

Bottom Line: Porphyrinic molecules have a unique theranostic role in disease therapy; they have been used to image, detect and treat different forms of diseased tissue including age-related macular degeneration and a number of different cancer types.Current focus is on the clinical imaging of tumour tissue; targeted delivery of photosensitisers and the potential of photosensitisers in multimodal biomedical theranostic nanoplatforms.The roles of porphyrinic molecules in imaging and pdt, along with research into improving their selective uptake in diseased tissue and their utility in theranostic applications are highlighted in this Review.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, The University Of Hull, Kingston-Upon-Hull, HU6 7RX, U.K.

ABSTRACT
Porphyrinic molecules have a unique theranostic role in disease therapy; they have been used to image, detect and treat different forms of diseased tissue including age-related macular degeneration and a number of different cancer types. Current focus is on the clinical imaging of tumour tissue; targeted delivery of photosensitisers and the potential of photosensitisers in multimodal biomedical theranostic nanoplatforms. The roles of porphyrinic molecules in imaging and pdt, along with research into improving their selective uptake in diseased tissue and their utility in theranostic applications are highlighted in this Review.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus