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Vaccination against Feline Panleukopenia: implications from a field study in kittens.

Jakel V, Cussler K, Hanschmann KM, Truyen U, König M, Kamphuis E, Duchow K - BMC Vet. Res. (2012)

Bottom Line: There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods.The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12 weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20 weeks of age.Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Str 51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany. verena.jakel@pei.de

ABSTRACT

Background: Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) is a serious disease of cats that can be prevented by vaccination. Kittens are routinely vaccinated repeatedly during their first months of life. By this time maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with vaccination and inhibit the development of active immunity. The efficacy of primary vaccination under field conditions was questioned by frequent reports to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on outbreaks of FPL in vaccinated breeding catteries. We therefore initiated a field study to investigate the development of immunity in kittens during primary vaccination against FPL.64 kittens from 16 litters were vaccinated against FPL at the age of 8, 12 and 16 weeks using three commercial polyvalent vaccines. Blood samples were taken before each vaccination and at the age of 20 weeks. Sera were tested for antibodies against Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) by hemagglutination inhibition test and serum neutralisation assay in two independent diagnostic laboratories.

Results: There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods. Despite triple vaccination 36.7% of the kittens did not seroconvert. Even very low titres of MDA apparently inhibited the development of active immunity. The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12 weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20 weeks of age. Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity.

Conclusions: In the given situation it is recommended to quantify antibodies against FPV in the serum of the queen or kittens before primary vaccination of kittens. The beginning of primary vaccination should be delayed until MDA titres have declined. Unprotected kittens that have been identified serologically should be revaccinated.

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Relationship between the antibody titres of the queen and their kittens measured by SNT B 8 weeks after birth. The horizontal dotted line indicates the arbitrary titre of 1:10 below which interference of MDA with vaccination might not be expected.
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Figure 4: Relationship between the antibody titres of the queen and their kittens measured by SNT B 8 weeks after birth. The horizontal dotted line indicates the arbitrary titre of 1:10 below which interference of MDA with vaccination might not be expected.

Mentions: The antibody levels of the queens correlated with the MDA titre of the respective kittens (Figure 4) as well as with the vaccination performance. Queens with low antibody titres had a higher percentage of successfully immunised kittens showing seroconversion at earlier time points (Table 2). 14 out of 16 kittens from queens with antibody titres <1:1000 (SNT B) seroconverted during the study: 25% after the first vaccination and 56% after the second vaccination. In contrast no seroconversion was observed in the majority of kittens (17/23) from queens with antibody titres >1:10000. Two kittens from a queen with a high antibody titre (1:3788) showed rising antibody titres after the first vaccination. The reaction of these animals may have been the result of natural infection seen in this litter (Table 2).


Vaccination against Feline Panleukopenia: implications from a field study in kittens.

Jakel V, Cussler K, Hanschmann KM, Truyen U, König M, Kamphuis E, Duchow K - BMC Vet. Res. (2012)

Relationship between the antibody titres of the queen and their kittens measured by SNT B 8 weeks after birth. The horizontal dotted line indicates the arbitrary titre of 1:10 below which interference of MDA with vaccination might not be expected.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475090&req=5

Figure 4: Relationship between the antibody titres of the queen and their kittens measured by SNT B 8 weeks after birth. The horizontal dotted line indicates the arbitrary titre of 1:10 below which interference of MDA with vaccination might not be expected.
Mentions: The antibody levels of the queens correlated with the MDA titre of the respective kittens (Figure 4) as well as with the vaccination performance. Queens with low antibody titres had a higher percentage of successfully immunised kittens showing seroconversion at earlier time points (Table 2). 14 out of 16 kittens from queens with antibody titres <1:1000 (SNT B) seroconverted during the study: 25% after the first vaccination and 56% after the second vaccination. In contrast no seroconversion was observed in the majority of kittens (17/23) from queens with antibody titres >1:10000. Two kittens from a queen with a high antibody titre (1:3788) showed rising antibody titres after the first vaccination. The reaction of these animals may have been the result of natural infection seen in this litter (Table 2).

Bottom Line: There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods.The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12 weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20 weeks of age.Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Paul-Ehrlich-Str 51-59, 63225 Langen, Germany. verena.jakel@pei.de

ABSTRACT

Background: Feline Panleukopenia (FPL) is a serious disease of cats that can be prevented by vaccination. Kittens are routinely vaccinated repeatedly during their first months of life. By this time maternally derived antibodies (MDA) can interfere with vaccination and inhibit the development of active immunity. The efficacy of primary vaccination under field conditions was questioned by frequent reports to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on outbreaks of FPL in vaccinated breeding catteries. We therefore initiated a field study to investigate the development of immunity in kittens during primary vaccination against FPL.64 kittens from 16 litters were vaccinated against FPL at the age of 8, 12 and 16 weeks using three commercial polyvalent vaccines. Blood samples were taken before each vaccination and at the age of 20 weeks. Sera were tested for antibodies against Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) by hemagglutination inhibition test and serum neutralisation assay in two independent diagnostic laboratories.

Results: There was a good correlation between the results obtained in different laboratories and with different methods. Despite triple vaccination 36.7% of the kittens did not seroconvert. Even very low titres of MDA apparently inhibited the development of active immunity. The majority of kittens displayed significant titres of MDA at 8 and 12 weeks of age; in some animals MDA were still detected at 20 weeks of age. Interestingly, the vaccines tested differed significantly in their ability to overcome low levels of maternal immunity.

Conclusions: In the given situation it is recommended to quantify antibodies against FPV in the serum of the queen or kittens before primary vaccination of kittens. The beginning of primary vaccination should be delayed until MDA titres have declined. Unprotected kittens that have been identified serologically should be revaccinated.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus