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Effect of essential fatty acids on glucose-induced cytotoxicity to retinal vascular endothelial cells.

Shen J, Shen S, Das UN, Xu G - Lipids Health Dis (2012)

Bottom Line: Whether essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid have similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood.Increased level of high glucose caused slightly increased ROS generation that correlated with corresponding decrease in SOD activity.These results suggest that EFAs such as ALA and LA may have beneficial action in the prevention of high glucose-induced cellular damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Clinical Visual Science, Tongji Eye institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of dysregulated hyperglycemia. Retinal vascular endothelial cell dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Studies showed that hyperglycemia-induced excess proliferation of retinal vascular endothelial cells can be abrogated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 ω-3). The influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism has been previously implied. Zn2+ is essential for the activity of Δ6 desaturase as a co-factor that, in turn, converts essential fatty acids to their respective long chain metabolites. Whether essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid have similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood.

Methods: RF/6A cells were treated with different concentrations of high glucose, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and Zn2+. The alterations in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, cell membrane fluidity, reactive oxygen species generation, SOD enzyme and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion were evaluated.

Results: Studies showed that hyperglycemia-induced excess proliferation of retinal vascular endothelial cells can be abrogated by both linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid was ineffective. A dose-response study with ALA showed that the activity of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme was suppressed at all concentrations of glucose tested to a significant degree. High glucose enhanced fluorescence polarization and microviscocity reverted to normal by treatment with Zn2+ and ALA. ALA was more potent that Zn2+. Increased level of high glucose caused slightly increased ROS generation that correlated with corresponding decrease in SOD activity. ALA suppressed ROS generation to a significant degree in a dose dependent fashion and raised SOD activity significantly. ALA suppressed high-glucose-induced VEGF secretion by RF/6A cells.

Conclusions: These results suggest that EFAs such as ALA and LA may have beneficial action in the prevention of high glucose-induced cellular damage.

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Effect of glucose and ALA on the activity of SOD in RF/6A cells. Data are mean ± S.D. Comparisons were performed using Turkey’s post hoc test. Different superscript letters indicate significantly different means.
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Figure 6: Effect of glucose and ALA on the activity of SOD in RF/6A cells. Data are mean ± S.D. Comparisons were performed using Turkey’s post hoc test. Different superscript letters indicate significantly different means.

Mentions: Oxidative stress occurs in the cells, because of an imbalance between the prooxidant/antioxidant systems. Exposure of RF/6A cells to high amounts of glucose enhanced SOD activity compared to the control (Figure 6) suggesting that RF/6A cells are trying to compensate for the oxidative stress induced by excess glucose. ALA alone increased SOD activity to a significant degree in a dose dependent fashion. In the presence of excess of glucose, ALA maintained enhanced SOD activity. In fact, RF/6A cells exposed to the highest concentration of glucose showed higher activity of SOD in the presence of ALA compared to the control, suggesting that ALA may have the ability to balance enhanced oxidative stress by augmenting SOD levels in the cells.


Effect of essential fatty acids on glucose-induced cytotoxicity to retinal vascular endothelial cells.

Shen J, Shen S, Das UN, Xu G - Lipids Health Dis (2012)

Effect of glucose and ALA on the activity of SOD in RF/6A cells. Data are mean ± S.D. Comparisons were performed using Turkey’s post hoc test. Different superscript letters indicate significantly different means.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475048&req=5

Figure 6: Effect of glucose and ALA on the activity of SOD in RF/6A cells. Data are mean ± S.D. Comparisons were performed using Turkey’s post hoc test. Different superscript letters indicate significantly different means.
Mentions: Oxidative stress occurs in the cells, because of an imbalance between the prooxidant/antioxidant systems. Exposure of RF/6A cells to high amounts of glucose enhanced SOD activity compared to the control (Figure 6) suggesting that RF/6A cells are trying to compensate for the oxidative stress induced by excess glucose. ALA alone increased SOD activity to a significant degree in a dose dependent fashion. In the presence of excess of glucose, ALA maintained enhanced SOD activity. In fact, RF/6A cells exposed to the highest concentration of glucose showed higher activity of SOD in the presence of ALA compared to the control, suggesting that ALA may have the ability to balance enhanced oxidative stress by augmenting SOD levels in the cells.

Bottom Line: Whether essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid have similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood.Increased level of high glucose caused slightly increased ROS generation that correlated with corresponding decrease in SOD activity.These results suggest that EFAs such as ALA and LA may have beneficial action in the prevention of high glucose-induced cellular damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Clinical Visual Science, Tongji Eye institute, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

ABSTRACT

Background: Diabetic retinopathy is a major complication of dysregulated hyperglycemia. Retinal vascular endothelial cell dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy. Studies showed that hyperglycemia-induced excess proliferation of retinal vascular endothelial cells can be abrogated by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 ω-3). The influence of dietary omega-3 PUFA on brain zinc metabolism has been previously implied. Zn2+ is essential for the activity of Δ6 desaturase as a co-factor that, in turn, converts essential fatty acids to their respective long chain metabolites. Whether essential fatty acids (EFAs) α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid have similar beneficial effect remains poorly understood.

Methods: RF/6A cells were treated with different concentrations of high glucose, α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and Zn2+. The alterations in mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme activity, cell membrane fluidity, reactive oxygen species generation, SOD enzyme and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion were evaluated.

Results: Studies showed that hyperglycemia-induced excess proliferation of retinal vascular endothelial cells can be abrogated by both linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid was ineffective. A dose-response study with ALA showed that the activity of the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase enzyme was suppressed at all concentrations of glucose tested to a significant degree. High glucose enhanced fluorescence polarization and microviscocity reverted to normal by treatment with Zn2+ and ALA. ALA was more potent that Zn2+. Increased level of high glucose caused slightly increased ROS generation that correlated with corresponding decrease in SOD activity. ALA suppressed ROS generation to a significant degree in a dose dependent fashion and raised SOD activity significantly. ALA suppressed high-glucose-induced VEGF secretion by RF/6A cells.

Conclusions: These results suggest that EFAs such as ALA and LA may have beneficial action in the prevention of high glucose-induced cellular damage.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus