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Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: an analysis of ART service utilization.

Dako-Gyeke P, Snow R, Yawson AE - Int J Equity Health (2012)

Bottom Line: Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed.All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level.Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P O Box LG 13, Accra, Ghana. gyekenay@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana.

Methods: We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program's ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared.

Results: The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country.

Conclusions: Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.

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Female to Male Ratio of Adults Enrolled on ART in Ghana. Figure shows female to male ratio of adults enrolled on antiretroviral therapy in Ghana for each year, starting from 2003 to 2010. Figure shows the female to male ratio of total number of adult HIV patients in Ghana who newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy each year starting from 2003 to 2010.
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Figure 2: Female to Male Ratio of Adults Enrolled on ART in Ghana. Figure shows female to male ratio of adults enrolled on antiretroviral therapy in Ghana for each year, starting from 2003 to 2010. Figure shows the female to male ratio of total number of adult HIV patients in Ghana who newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy each year starting from 2003 to 2010.

Mentions: For the 8 year period within which ART services have been available in Ghana, more females than males have been enrolling (Table2). In 2003 43.1% of adults enrolled on ART were males, and this proportion declined precipitously in the following years, progressing to 41.3% in 2004, to 30.1% in 2008 and 27.6% in 2010 (Table2). The F:M ratio was 1.3 in 2003, but steadily increased over the years (Figure2).


Who is utilizing anti-retroviral therapy in Ghana: an analysis of ART service utilization.

Dako-Gyeke P, Snow R, Yawson AE - Int J Equity Health (2012)

Female to Male Ratio of Adults Enrolled on ART in Ghana. Figure shows female to male ratio of adults enrolled on antiretroviral therapy in Ghana for each year, starting from 2003 to 2010. Figure shows the female to male ratio of total number of adult HIV patients in Ghana who newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy each year starting from 2003 to 2010.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3475040&req=5

Figure 2: Female to Male Ratio of Adults Enrolled on ART in Ghana. Figure shows female to male ratio of adults enrolled on antiretroviral therapy in Ghana for each year, starting from 2003 to 2010. Figure shows the female to male ratio of total number of adult HIV patients in Ghana who newly enrolled on antiretroviral therapy each year starting from 2003 to 2010.
Mentions: For the 8 year period within which ART services have been available in Ghana, more females than males have been enrolling (Table2). In 2003 43.1% of adults enrolled on ART were males, and this proportion declined precipitously in the following years, progressing to 41.3% in 2004, to 30.1% in 2008 and 27.6% in 2010 (Table2). The F:M ratio was 1.3 in 2003, but steadily increased over the years (Figure2).

Bottom Line: Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed.All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level.Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of Ghana, P O Box LG 13, Accra, Ghana. gyekenay@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The global scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV patients has led to concerns regarding inequities in utilization of ART services in resource-limited contexts. In this paper, we describe regional and sex differentials in the distribution of ART among adult HIV patients in Ghana. We highlight the need for interventions to address the gender-based and geographic inequities related to the utilization of ART services in Ghana.

Methods: We reviewed National AIDS/STIs Control Program's ART service provision records from January 2003 through December 2010, extracting data on adults aged 15+ who initiated ART in Ghana over a period of eight years. Data on the number of patients on treatment, year of enrollment, sex, and region were obtained and compared.

Results: The number of HIV patients receiving ART in Ghana increased more than 200-fold from 197 in 2003, to over 45,000 in 2010. However, for each of six continuous years (2005-2010) males comprised approximately one-third of adults newly enrolled on ART. As ART coverage has expanded in Ghana, the proportion of males receiving ART declined from 41.7% in 2004 to 30.1% in 2008 and to 27.6% in 2010. Also, there is disproportionate regional ART utilization across the country. Some regions report ART enrollment lower than their percent share of number of HIV infected persons in the country.

Conclusions: Attention to the comparatively fewer males initiating ART, as well as disproportionate regional ART utilization is urgently needed. All forms of gender-based inequities in relation to HIV care must be addressed in order for Ghana to realize successful outcomes at the population level. Policy makers in Ghana and elsewhere need to understand how gender-based health inequities in relation to HIV care affect both men and women and begin to design appropriate interventions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus