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Open evaluation: a vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science.

Kriegeskorte N - Front Comput Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper.The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable.OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and collaboration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA) is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE), the other side of the coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer-review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs). PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g., scientific societies) and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g., by H-index), and rating scales (e.g., by relevance to a decision process) in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and collaboration.

No MeSH data available.


Degrees of crystallization of scientific communications. Scientific communications, from informal conversations to peer-reviewed papers, span a wide range of degrees of crystallization. Crystallization increases with the number of people in whose memory the communication is stored and with the reliability, permanence, and citability of computer-based storage. The most significant scientific communications deserve lasting accessibility and citability. They form the historical memory of science. The peer-reviewed paper, thus, will continue to play a pivotal role in science, even as more fleeting online communications gain in importance.
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Figure 9: Degrees of crystallization of scientific communications. Scientific communications, from informal conversations to peer-reviewed papers, span a wide range of degrees of crystallization. Crystallization increases with the number of people in whose memory the communication is stored and with the reliability, permanence, and citability of computer-based storage. The most significant scientific communications deserve lasting accessibility and citability. They form the historical memory of science. The peer-reviewed paper, thus, will continue to play a pivotal role in science, even as more fleeting online communications gain in importance.

Mentions: Research blogging fills an important gap: between informal discussions and formal publications (Harnad, 1990). Unlike a private informal discussion, a blog is publicly accessible. Unlike a scientific paper, a blog post can be altered or removed from public access. Blog posts are also often anonymous, whereas papers are signed and author-authenticated. These more fluid properties of blogs make for their unique contribution to scientific culture. However, the very fluidity of blogs also makes them inadequate as the sole vessel of scientific publishing. In particular, blogging lacks the quality of “crystallization” (Figure 9). A scientific publication needs to be crystallized in the sense that it is a constant historical record that can be accessed permanently and therefore cited.


Open evaluation: a vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science.

Kriegeskorte N - Front Comput Neurosci (2012)

Degrees of crystallization of scientific communications. Scientific communications, from informal conversations to peer-reviewed papers, span a wide range of degrees of crystallization. Crystallization increases with the number of people in whose memory the communication is stored and with the reliability, permanence, and citability of computer-based storage. The most significant scientific communications deserve lasting accessibility and citability. They form the historical memory of science. The peer-reviewed paper, thus, will continue to play a pivotal role in science, even as more fleeting online communications gain in importance.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3473231&req=5

Figure 9: Degrees of crystallization of scientific communications. Scientific communications, from informal conversations to peer-reviewed papers, span a wide range of degrees of crystallization. Crystallization increases with the number of people in whose memory the communication is stored and with the reliability, permanence, and citability of computer-based storage. The most significant scientific communications deserve lasting accessibility and citability. They form the historical memory of science. The peer-reviewed paper, thus, will continue to play a pivotal role in science, even as more fleeting online communications gain in importance.
Mentions: Research blogging fills an important gap: between informal discussions and formal publications (Harnad, 1990). Unlike a private informal discussion, a blog is publicly accessible. Unlike a scientific paper, a blog post can be altered or removed from public access. Blog posts are also often anonymous, whereas papers are signed and author-authenticated. These more fluid properties of blogs make for their unique contribution to scientific culture. However, the very fluidity of blogs also makes them inadequate as the sole vessel of scientific publishing. In particular, blogging lacks the quality of “crystallization” (Figure 9). A scientific publication needs to be crystallized in the sense that it is a constant historical record that can be accessed permanently and therefore cited.

Bottom Line: Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper.The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable.OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and collaboration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Research Council, Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA) is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE), the other side of the coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer-review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs). PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g., scientific societies) and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g., by H-index), and rating scales (e.g., by relevance to a decision process) in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and collaboration.

No MeSH data available.