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Effect of MWCNT surface and chemical modification on in vitro cellular response.

Fraczek-Szczypta A, Menaszek E, Syeda TB, Misra A, Alavijeh M, Adu J, Blazewicz S - J Nanopart Res (2012)

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that the way of CNT preparation prior to biological tests has a fundamental impact on their behavior, cell viability and the nature of cell-nanotube interaction.Chemical functionalisation of CNTs in an acidic ambient (MWCNT-Fs) facilitates interaction with cells by two possible mechanisms, namely, endocytosis/phagocytosis and by energy-independent passive process.A possible explanation of such a phenomenon is the presence of MWCNT's agglomerates surrounded by numerous cells releasing toxic substances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with diameter in the range of 10-30 nm) before and after chemical surface functionalisation on macrophages response. The study has shown that the detailed analysis of the physicochemical properties of this particular form of carbon nanomaterial is a crucial issue to interpret properly its impact on the cellular response. Effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) characteristics, including purity, dispersity, chemistry and dimension upon the nature of the cell environment-material interaction were investigated. Various techniques involving electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the materials. The results demonstrate that the way of CNT preparation prior to biological tests has a fundamental impact on their behavior, cell viability and the nature of cell-nanotube interaction. Chemical functionalisation of CNTs in an acidic ambient (MWCNT-Fs) facilitates interaction with cells by two possible mechanisms, namely, endocytosis/phagocytosis and by energy-independent passive process. The results indicate that MWCNT-F in macrophages may decrease the cell proliferation process by interfering with the mitotic apparatus without negative consequences on cell viability. On the contrary, the as-prepared MWCNTs, without any surface treatment produce the least reduction in cell proliferation with reference to control, and the viability of cells exposed to this sample was substantially reduced with respect to control. A possible explanation of such a phenomenon is the presence of MWCNT's agglomerates surrounded by numerous cells releasing toxic substances.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Raman spectra of MWCNTs (a), Stone–Wales (SW) defect (b)
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Fig5: Raman spectra of MWCNTs (a), Stone–Wales (SW) defect (b)

Mentions: Shortening the length of the MWCNT-Fs is related to the presence of defects, especially the topological defects such as Stone–Wales (SW) transformation. In general, the term defect means any deviation from the hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms in a graphene layer. Topological defects (Stone–Wales) are the most probable type of defects from the standpoint of the properties of nanotubes and are related to the presence of two pentagonal and heptagonal rings (Fig. 5b) (Stone and Wales 1986; Dinadayalane and Leszczynski 2007). Due to the presence of such defects in the graphene surface layer of nanotubes, such sites are thermodynamically unstable, and thus, particularly prone to strong oxidising agents. Moreover, the pristine CNTs possess other defects such as a disordered structure or lattice defects in the graphite structure which affect their stability. The presence of such defects in the graphite structure of MWCNTs was found by Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 5a).Fig. 5


Effect of MWCNT surface and chemical modification on in vitro cellular response.

Fraczek-Szczypta A, Menaszek E, Syeda TB, Misra A, Alavijeh M, Adu J, Blazewicz S - J Nanopart Res (2012)

Raman spectra of MWCNTs (a), Stone–Wales (SW) defect (b)
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3473194&req=5

Fig5: Raman spectra of MWCNTs (a), Stone–Wales (SW) defect (b)
Mentions: Shortening the length of the MWCNT-Fs is related to the presence of defects, especially the topological defects such as Stone–Wales (SW) transformation. In general, the term defect means any deviation from the hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms in a graphene layer. Topological defects (Stone–Wales) are the most probable type of defects from the standpoint of the properties of nanotubes and are related to the presence of two pentagonal and heptagonal rings (Fig. 5b) (Stone and Wales 1986; Dinadayalane and Leszczynski 2007). Due to the presence of such defects in the graphene surface layer of nanotubes, such sites are thermodynamically unstable, and thus, particularly prone to strong oxidising agents. Moreover, the pristine CNTs possess other defects such as a disordered structure or lattice defects in the graphite structure which affect their stability. The presence of such defects in the graphite structure of MWCNTs was found by Raman spectroscopy (Fig. 5a).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: The results demonstrate that the way of CNT preparation prior to biological tests has a fundamental impact on their behavior, cell viability and the nature of cell-nanotube interaction.Chemical functionalisation of CNTs in an acidic ambient (MWCNT-Fs) facilitates interaction with cells by two possible mechanisms, namely, endocytosis/phagocytosis and by energy-independent passive process.A possible explanation of such a phenomenon is the presence of MWCNT's agglomerates surrounded by numerous cells releasing toxic substances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, AGH-University of Science and Technology, Al Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with diameter in the range of 10-30 nm) before and after chemical surface functionalisation on macrophages response. The study has shown that the detailed analysis of the physicochemical properties of this particular form of carbon nanomaterial is a crucial issue to interpret properly its impact on the cellular response. Effects of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) characteristics, including purity, dispersity, chemistry and dimension upon the nature of the cell environment-material interaction were investigated. Various techniques involving electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been employed to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the materials. The results demonstrate that the way of CNT preparation prior to biological tests has a fundamental impact on their behavior, cell viability and the nature of cell-nanotube interaction. Chemical functionalisation of CNTs in an acidic ambient (MWCNT-Fs) facilitates interaction with cells by two possible mechanisms, namely, endocytosis/phagocytosis and by energy-independent passive process. The results indicate that MWCNT-F in macrophages may decrease the cell proliferation process by interfering with the mitotic apparatus without negative consequences on cell viability. On the contrary, the as-prepared MWCNTs, without any surface treatment produce the least reduction in cell proliferation with reference to control, and the viability of cells exposed to this sample was substantially reduced with respect to control. A possible explanation of such a phenomenon is the presence of MWCNT's agglomerates surrounded by numerous cells releasing toxic substances.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus