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On the hunt for vascular endothelial stem cells.

Sedwick C - PLoS Biol. (2012)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: csedwick@gmail.com

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In the inner blastocyst of early embryos are found pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to turn into every type of cell in the adult animal... For example, much effort has been devoted toward isolating and characterizing the adult stem cells that give rise to the vascular endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels)... In fact, it was thought that hematopoietic stem cells, which produce immune cells and red blood cells, could also produce cells that become vascular endothelial cells... In support of this idea, it was shown that some kinds of cells found in blood are highly proliferative and express cell surface proteins typical of endothelial cells... However, later experiments showed that cells derived from fluorescently marked hematopoietic stem cells never appear in the vascular endothelium, suggesting VESC probably reside within the vascular endothelium... These experiments uncovered a set of very rare colony-forming cells... Subsequent analysis established that these cells express common endothelial cell markers and also display the cell surface protein CD117 (c-kit), a marker that's been found on other types of stem cells... What's more, mice with impaired CD117 expression have deficient vasculature growth... These animals also exhibit slower growth of implanted melanoma tumors due to decreased tumor blood vessel growth... Meanwhile, a single colony of CD117-positive colony-forming cells plucked from culture can give rise to entire blood vessels when seeded into a plug of extracellular matrix material that has been implanted into a mouse host... In agreement with this, Fang et al. showed that these cells can also form blood vessels in solid tumors implanted into a mouse host... Taken together, the authors' data suggest that CD117-positive colony forming cells possess both the self-renewing capacity and the versatility expected of adult stem cells, and the evidence points to these cells being the long-sought-after VESC... With this information in hand, it should now be possible to determine what other markers set this stem cell population apart, leading to a better understanding of this critical stem cell population and paving the way for therapeutic benefits down the road.

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A single adult endothelial stem cell with the c-kit marker can generate functional blood vessels. The illustration shows GFP+ blood vessels generated subcutaneously in a mouse by the transplanted descendants of a single genetically GFP-tagged endothelial stem cell.(Image: Fang, Wei, and Salven).
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pbio-1001408-g001: A single adult endothelial stem cell with the c-kit marker can generate functional blood vessels. The illustration shows GFP+ blood vessels generated subcutaneously in a mouse by the transplanted descendants of a single genetically GFP-tagged endothelial stem cell.(Image: Fang, Wei, and Salven).

Mentions: In the inner blastocyst of early embryos are found pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to turn into every type of cell in the adult animal. Later in development, stem cells still exist, but they produce a more restricted range of progeny cell types. Tissue-specific stem cells arise that contribute primarily to individual tissues such as skin, muscle, or blood. These cells are essential both during development, when they deliver differentiated progeny to fulfill the demands of tissue growth, and in adulthood, when they swing into action to replace cells lost to age or to injury.


On the hunt for vascular endothelial stem cells.

Sedwick C - PLoS Biol. (2012)

A single adult endothelial stem cell with the c-kit marker can generate functional blood vessels. The illustration shows GFP+ blood vessels generated subcutaneously in a mouse by the transplanted descendants of a single genetically GFP-tagged endothelial stem cell.(Image: Fang, Wei, and Salven).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472991&req=5

pbio-1001408-g001: A single adult endothelial stem cell with the c-kit marker can generate functional blood vessels. The illustration shows GFP+ blood vessels generated subcutaneously in a mouse by the transplanted descendants of a single genetically GFP-tagged endothelial stem cell.(Image: Fang, Wei, and Salven).
Mentions: In the inner blastocyst of early embryos are found pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to turn into every type of cell in the adult animal. Later in development, stem cells still exist, but they produce a more restricted range of progeny cell types. Tissue-specific stem cells arise that contribute primarily to individual tissues such as skin, muscle, or blood. These cells are essential both during development, when they deliver differentiated progeny to fulfill the demands of tissue growth, and in adulthood, when they swing into action to replace cells lost to age or to injury.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: csedwick@gmail.com

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

In the inner blastocyst of early embryos are found pluripotent stem cells, which have the potential to turn into every type of cell in the adult animal... For example, much effort has been devoted toward isolating and characterizing the adult stem cells that give rise to the vascular endothelium (the inner lining of blood vessels)... In fact, it was thought that hematopoietic stem cells, which produce immune cells and red blood cells, could also produce cells that become vascular endothelial cells... In support of this idea, it was shown that some kinds of cells found in blood are highly proliferative and express cell surface proteins typical of endothelial cells... However, later experiments showed that cells derived from fluorescently marked hematopoietic stem cells never appear in the vascular endothelium, suggesting VESC probably reside within the vascular endothelium... These experiments uncovered a set of very rare colony-forming cells... Subsequent analysis established that these cells express common endothelial cell markers and also display the cell surface protein CD117 (c-kit), a marker that's been found on other types of stem cells... What's more, mice with impaired CD117 expression have deficient vasculature growth... These animals also exhibit slower growth of implanted melanoma tumors due to decreased tumor blood vessel growth... Meanwhile, a single colony of CD117-positive colony-forming cells plucked from culture can give rise to entire blood vessels when seeded into a plug of extracellular matrix material that has been implanted into a mouse host... In agreement with this, Fang et al. showed that these cells can also form blood vessels in solid tumors implanted into a mouse host... Taken together, the authors' data suggest that CD117-positive colony forming cells possess both the self-renewing capacity and the versatility expected of adult stem cells, and the evidence points to these cells being the long-sought-after VESC... With this information in hand, it should now be possible to determine what other markers set this stem cell population apart, leading to a better understanding of this critical stem cell population and paving the way for therapeutic benefits down the road.

Show MeSH