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Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

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Among-subject differences visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Among-subject differences by longitudinal caries activity were observed. The plots represent baseline community profiles for healthy subjects and subjects with caries. The baseline patient class and subsequent disease activity are color-coded. Samples from healthy enamel were the only stage available from all subjects and so were used here. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each clinical group marked. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates.
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pone-0047722-g008: Among-subject differences visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Among-subject differences by longitudinal caries activity were observed. The plots represent baseline community profiles for healthy subjects and subjects with caries. The baseline patient class and subsequent disease activity are color-coded. Samples from healthy enamel were the only stage available from all subjects and so were used here. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each clinical group marked. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates.

Mentions: The NMDS plots shown in Figure 8 are keyed by longitudinal clinical status. ANOSIM analysis was significant for the overall model (R = 0.06819, p = 0.05), and pairwise comparisons revealed a significant difference between control subjects that remained healthy and those that developed caries (R = 0.1908, adjusted p = 0.015), as well as a difference between control subjects that remained healthy and caries subjects that progressed (R = 0.1571, adjusted p = 0.015).


Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Among-subject differences visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Among-subject differences by longitudinal caries activity were observed. The plots represent baseline community profiles for healthy subjects and subjects with caries. The baseline patient class and subsequent disease activity are color-coded. Samples from healthy enamel were the only stage available from all subjects and so were used here. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each clinical group marked. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472979&req=5

pone-0047722-g008: Among-subject differences visualized by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Among-subject differences by longitudinal caries activity were observed. The plots represent baseline community profiles for healthy subjects and subjects with caries. The baseline patient class and subsequent disease activity are color-coded. Samples from healthy enamel were the only stage available from all subjects and so were used here. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each clinical group marked. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates.
Mentions: The NMDS plots shown in Figure 8 are keyed by longitudinal clinical status. ANOSIM analysis was significant for the overall model (R = 0.06819, p = 0.05), and pairwise comparisons revealed a significant difference between control subjects that remained healthy and those that developed caries (R = 0.1908, adjusted p = 0.015), as well as a difference between control subjects that remained healthy and caries subjects that progressed (R = 0.1571, adjusted p = 0.015).

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus