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Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

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Within-subject differences in plots of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Baseline samples from only the subset of subjects whose caries status remained constant over time (caries subjects that continued to develop caries and healthy subjects that remained healthy) was included, and within-subject differences by stage of caries were observed. A single sample from each stage of caries is included for each subject, and each point represents a single sample. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each stage of caries marked. The metaMDS algorithm used puts the largest dimension of change along the horizontal axis. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates. Empty plot symbols represent samples where that species was not detected.
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pone-0047722-g005: Within-subject differences in plots of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Baseline samples from only the subset of subjects whose caries status remained constant over time (caries subjects that continued to develop caries and healthy subjects that remained healthy) was included, and within-subject differences by stage of caries were observed. A single sample from each stage of caries is included for each subject, and each point represents a single sample. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each stage of caries marked. The metaMDS algorithm used puts the largest dimension of change along the horizontal axis. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates. Empty plot symbols represent samples where that species was not detected.

Mentions: Figure 5 shows a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity for baseline samples from all stages of caries. A leftward shift with advancing caries stage can be observed in the plot. The ANOSIM test for all within-subject stages was significant (R = 0.232, p = 0.001) and pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between healthy subjects and subjects with caries for all samples: intact enamel (R = 0.266, p = 0.002), white spot samples (R = 0.398, p = 0.002), and cavitated samples (R = 0.538, p = 0.002). The lower panels of Figure 4 illustrate the distribution of abundance within the samples for selected species.


Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Within-subject differences in plots of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Baseline samples from only the subset of subjects whose caries status remained constant over time (caries subjects that continued to develop caries and healthy subjects that remained healthy) was included, and within-subject differences by stage of caries were observed. A single sample from each stage of caries is included for each subject, and each point represents a single sample. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each stage of caries marked. The metaMDS algorithm used puts the largest dimension of change along the horizontal axis. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates. Empty plot symbols represent samples where that species was not detected.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472979&req=5

pone-0047722-g005: Within-subject differences in plots of a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis Dissimilarity.Baseline samples from only the subset of subjects whose caries status remained constant over time (caries subjects that continued to develop caries and healthy subjects that remained healthy) was included, and within-subject differences by stage of caries were observed. A single sample from each stage of caries is included for each subject, and each point represents a single sample. The top panel shows the NMDS plot, with the centroid for each stage of caries marked. The metaMDS algorithm used puts the largest dimension of change along the horizontal axis. The p-value is for the overall ANOSIM model. The points in lower panels are sized by abundance for the most common species significantly associated with caries and health, and p-values are for the linear mixed effects model estimates. Empty plot symbols represent samples where that species was not detected.
Mentions: Figure 5 shows a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity for baseline samples from all stages of caries. A leftward shift with advancing caries stage can be observed in the plot. The ANOSIM test for all within-subject stages was significant (R = 0.232, p = 0.001) and pairwise comparisons revealed significant differences between healthy subjects and subjects with caries for all samples: intact enamel (R = 0.266, p = 0.002), white spot samples (R = 0.398, p = 0.002), and cavitated samples (R = 0.538, p = 0.002). The lower panels of Figure 4 illustrate the distribution of abundance within the samples for selected species.

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus