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Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

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Relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing stage of caries.Graphs at the level of phylum, genus and species are shown. Taxa are sorted by magnitude of change with stage of caries (linear mixed effects model estimates), so that taxa associated with health sort at the bottom and taxa associated with caries are shown at the top. “*” indicates taxa with p<0.05 and “**” indicates taxa with p<0.01 after the false discovery rate correction was applied. Only genera found at greater than 0.1% of total clones and species found at greater than 0.2% of total clones are shown, and only those taxa significantly associated with caries or health are shown in the species-level graph.
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pone-0047722-g001: Relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing stage of caries.Graphs at the level of phylum, genus and species are shown. Taxa are sorted by magnitude of change with stage of caries (linear mixed effects model estimates), so that taxa associated with health sort at the bottom and taxa associated with caries are shown at the top. “*” indicates taxa with p<0.05 and “**” indicates taxa with p<0.01 after the false discovery rate correction was applied. Only genera found at greater than 0.1% of total clones and species found at greater than 0.2% of total clones are shown, and only those taxa significantly associated with caries or health are shown in the species-level graph.

Mentions: Overall 134 species were identified in this study, including two novel taxa. They could be assigned to 45 genera and six phyla. Only 9.65% of total clones represented uncultivated species. Baseline mean relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing caries stage are plotted in Figure 1. At the level of phylum, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased as caries stage increased, and Firmicutes increased. At the level of genus Veillonella and Streptococcus significantly increased with caries progression, and 8 other genera decreased as caries stage advanced (details in Figure 1). Five species-level taxa were significantly higher as caries stage increased, including Streptococcus mutans, the Streptococcus vestibularis/Streptococcus salivarius group, the Veillonella atypica/Veillonella dispar/Veillonella parvula group, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus parasanguinis. Seventeen species significantly decreased as caries stage progressed (details in Figure 1).


Beyond Streptococcus mutans: dental caries onset linked to multiple species by 16S rRNA community analysis.

Gross EL, Beall CJ, Kutsch SR, Firestone ND, Leys EJ, Griffen AL - PLoS ONE (2012)

Relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing stage of caries.Graphs at the level of phylum, genus and species are shown. Taxa are sorted by magnitude of change with stage of caries (linear mixed effects model estimates), so that taxa associated with health sort at the bottom and taxa associated with caries are shown at the top. “*” indicates taxa with p<0.05 and “**” indicates taxa with p<0.01 after the false discovery rate correction was applied. Only genera found at greater than 0.1% of total clones and species found at greater than 0.2% of total clones are shown, and only those taxa significantly associated with caries or health are shown in the species-level graph.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472979&req=5

pone-0047722-g001: Relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing stage of caries.Graphs at the level of phylum, genus and species are shown. Taxa are sorted by magnitude of change with stage of caries (linear mixed effects model estimates), so that taxa associated with health sort at the bottom and taxa associated with caries are shown at the top. “*” indicates taxa with p<0.05 and “**” indicates taxa with p<0.01 after the false discovery rate correction was applied. Only genera found at greater than 0.1% of total clones and species found at greater than 0.2% of total clones are shown, and only those taxa significantly associated with caries or health are shown in the species-level graph.
Mentions: Overall 134 species were identified in this study, including two novel taxa. They could be assigned to 45 genera and six phyla. Only 9.65% of total clones represented uncultivated species. Baseline mean relative levels of bacterial taxa by advancing caries stage are plotted in Figure 1. At the level of phylum, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased as caries stage increased, and Firmicutes increased. At the level of genus Veillonella and Streptococcus significantly increased with caries progression, and 8 other genera decreased as caries stage advanced (details in Figure 1). Five species-level taxa were significantly higher as caries stage increased, including Streptococcus mutans, the Streptococcus vestibularis/Streptococcus salivarius group, the Veillonella atypica/Veillonella dispar/Veillonella parvula group, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus parasanguinis. Seventeen species significantly decreased as caries stage progressed (details in Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment.Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions.This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Oral Biology, College of Dentistry, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Dental caries in very young children may be severe, result in serious infection, and require general anesthesia for treatment. Dental caries results from a shift within the biofilm community specific to the tooth surface, and acidogenic species are responsible for caries. Streptococcus mutans, the most common acid producer in caries, is not always present and occurs as part of a complex microbial community. Understanding the degree to which multiple acidogenic species provide functional redundancy and resilience to caries-associated communities will be important for developing biologic interventions. In addition, microbial community interactions in health and caries pathogenesis are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate bacterial community profiles associated with the onset of caries in the primary dentition. In a combination cross-sectional and longitudinal design, bacterial community profiles at progressive stages of caries and over time were examined and compared to those of health. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used for bacterial community analysis. Streptococcus mutans was the dominant species in many, but not all, subjects with caries. Elevated levels of S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, and S. parasanguinis were also associated with caries, especially in subjects with no or low levels of S. mutans, suggesting these species are alternative pathogens, and that multiple species may need to be targeted for interventions. Veillonella, which metabolizes lactate, was associated with caries and was highly correlated with total acid producing species. Among children without previous history of caries, Veillonella, but not S. mutans or other acid-producing species, predicted future caries. Bacterial community diversity was reduced in caries as compared to health, as many species appeared to occur at lower levels or be lost as caries advanced, including the Streptococcus mitis group, Neisseria, and Streptococcus sanguinis. This may have implications for bacterial community resilience and the restoration of oral health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus