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Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of trehalose in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of trehalose in the control; (B) percent content of trehalose in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
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f04_01: Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of trehalose in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of trehalose in the control; (B) percent content of trehalose in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: Total trehalose in control hemocytes was 7.7– 9.3% in proportion with the total content in hemolymph that decreased gradually with the increasing age of the 5th instar S. litura (Figure 4A). After exposure to sublethal hexaflumuron for 24 hours, the total trehalose in hemolymph and hematoplasma was not significantly different, but was significantly increased in hemocytes (p < 0.05, ANOVA). At 96 hours post—treatment, total trehalose in hemolymph and hematoplama was higher than in the control, and was significantly dose—dependently increased in hemocytes. Especially in the treatment with 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron, the total trehalose in hemocytes increased by 2.6- to 6.0-fold higher than the control, respectively (Figure 4B).


Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of trehalose in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of trehalose in the control; (B) percent content of trehalose in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472920&req=5

f04_01: Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of trehalose in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of trehalose in the control; (B) percent content of trehalose in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: Total trehalose in control hemocytes was 7.7– 9.3% in proportion with the total content in hemolymph that decreased gradually with the increasing age of the 5th instar S. litura (Figure 4A). After exposure to sublethal hexaflumuron for 24 hours, the total trehalose in hemolymph and hematoplasma was not significantly different, but was significantly increased in hemocytes (p < 0.05, ANOVA). At 96 hours post—treatment, total trehalose in hemolymph and hematoplama was higher than in the control, and was significantly dose—dependently increased in hemocytes. Especially in the treatment with 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron, the total trehalose in hemocytes increased by 2.6- to 6.0-fold higher than the control, respectively (Figure 4B).

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus