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Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of total carbohydrate in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of total carbohydrate in the control; (B) percent content of total carbohydrate in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
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f03_01: Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of total carbohydrate in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of total carbohydrate in the control; (B) percent content of total carbohydrate in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: In the hemolymph extracted from the control larvae, only 2.5–4.4% of total carbohydrate was found in the hemocytes. As shown in Figure 3A, total carbohydrate in hemolymph, hematoplasma, and hemocytes decreased gradually in controls with the increasing age of the 5th instar S. litura. In the treatments with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron, total carbohydrate slightly decreased in hematoplasma, but was significantly dose—dependently increased in hemocytes at 24 hours post—treatment (p < 0.05, ANOVA) (Figure 3B). Moreover, longer treatment time was shown to result in higher total carbohydrate in hematoplasma and hemocytes relative to the control. Exposure to 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron caused the total carbohydrate in hemocytes to increase to 3.0 times the control at 96 hours post—treatment.


Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of total carbohydrate in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of total carbohydrate in the control; (B) percent content of total carbohydrate in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472920&req=5

f03_01: Sublethal effects of 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron on the content of total carbohydrate in 5th instar Spodoptera litura larvae. (A) Content of total carbohydrate in the control; (B) percent content of total carbohydrate in the treatments relative to the control. High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: In the hemolymph extracted from the control larvae, only 2.5–4.4% of total carbohydrate was found in the hemocytes. As shown in Figure 3A, total carbohydrate in hemolymph, hematoplasma, and hemocytes decreased gradually in controls with the increasing age of the 5th instar S. litura. In the treatments with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron, total carbohydrate slightly decreased in hematoplasma, but was significantly dose—dependently increased in hemocytes at 24 hours post—treatment (p < 0.05, ANOVA) (Figure 3B). Moreover, longer treatment time was shown to result in higher total carbohydrate in hematoplasma and hemocytes relative to the control. Exposure to 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron caused the total carbohydrate in hemocytes to increase to 3.0 times the control at 96 hours post—treatment.

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus