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Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

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Morphological changes of hemocytes of Spodoptera litura after continuously fed with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron—dipped cabbage leaves for 96 hours (25Ox). High quality figures are available online.
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f02_01: Morphological changes of hemocytes of Spodoptera litura after continuously fed with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron—dipped cabbage leaves for 96 hours (25Ox). High quality figures are available online.

Mentions: Five different types of hemocytes in 5th instar S.litura were identified as prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherule cells. Statistical data in Table 2 showed that the counts of plasmatocytes and granulocytes increased the most followed by the number of spherule cells. In the control,the number of plasmatocytes gradually increased along with the larval growth, while the number of granulocytes decreased simultaneously. Sublethal concentration of hexaflumuron seemed to play a strong facilitating role on promoting the increases of plasmatocytes and the decrease of granulocytes. Especially in the treatment of 1.2 µg mL-1, the percentages of the count of plasmatocytes and granulocytes were changed to 64.9% and 21.5%, respectively, showing significant difference relative to the control at 96 hours post—treatment (p < 0.05, ANOVA). However, few effects of the sublethal concentrations were revealed on the number of spherule cells, oenocytoids, and prohemocytes. Morphological changes of hemocytes of S.litura showed that 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron could cause plasmatocyte pseudopodia to contract and shorten, and granulocytes to swell and expand (Figure 2).


Effects of sublethal concentrations of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on the development and hemolymph physiology of the cutworm, Spodoptera litura.

Zhu Q, He Y, Yao J, Liu Y, Tao L, Huang Q - J. Insect Sci. (2012)

Morphological changes of hemocytes of Spodoptera litura after continuously fed with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron—dipped cabbage leaves for 96 hours (25Ox). High quality figures are available online.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472920&req=5

f02_01: Morphological changes of hemocytes of Spodoptera litura after continuously fed with 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron—dipped cabbage leaves for 96 hours (25Ox). High quality figures are available online.
Mentions: Five different types of hemocytes in 5th instar S.litura were identified as prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, oenocytoids, and spherule cells. Statistical data in Table 2 showed that the counts of plasmatocytes and granulocytes increased the most followed by the number of spherule cells. In the control,the number of plasmatocytes gradually increased along with the larval growth, while the number of granulocytes decreased simultaneously. Sublethal concentration of hexaflumuron seemed to play a strong facilitating role on promoting the increases of plasmatocytes and the decrease of granulocytes. Especially in the treatment of 1.2 µg mL-1, the percentages of the count of plasmatocytes and granulocytes were changed to 64.9% and 21.5%, respectively, showing significant difference relative to the control at 96 hours post—treatment (p < 0.05, ANOVA). However, few effects of the sublethal concentrations were revealed on the number of spherule cells, oenocytoids, and prohemocytes. Morphological changes of hemocytes of S.litura showed that 1.2 µg mL-1 hexaflumuron could cause plasmatocyte pseudopodia to contract and shorten, and granulocytes to swell and expand (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae.The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control.The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China. flower3377@163.com

ABSTRACT
The effects of sublethal concentrations 0.1, 0.5, and 1.2 µg mL(-1)of the chitin synthesis inhibitor, hexaflumuron, on larval growth and development, the count and proportion of hemocytes, and carbohydrate content (trehalose and glyceride) in hemolymph were investigated in the cutworm, Spodoptera litura (Fabricious) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). When 3(rd) instar larvae were subjected to the sublethal concentrations, there were dose-dependent effects on larval weight and length of each instar larvae, percent pupation and the duration of development. Most of the larvae died during the molting process at all concentrations. Few individuals from 0.5 and 1.2 µg mL(-1)concentrations could develop to the 6(th) instar, while the pupae emerging from the 0.1 µg mL(-1)concentrations did not exceed 16% of the number of the initial larvae. In 5(th)instar S. litura, the total number of hemocytes was significantly increased at 24 hours post-treatment, whereas the proliferation of hemocytes was inhibited, plasmatocyte pseudopodia contracted, and granulocyte expanded at 96 hours post-treatment. The increases of plasmatocyte count and the decreases of granulocyte count were dose-dependent. The longer treatment time of the sublethal concentrations increased the content of total carbohydrate and trehalose in hematoplasma, and was dose-dependent in hemocytes. The content of glyceride in hemolymph was significantly higher at 24 hours post-treatment, but gradually returned to normal levels at 96 hours post-treatment as compared with the control. The results suggested that sublethal concentrations of hexaflumuron reduced S. litura larval survival and interfered with hemolymph physiological balances.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus