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Neural crest stem cells from dental tissues: a new hope for dental and neural regeneration.

Ibarretxe G, Crende O, Aurrekoetxea M, García-Murga V, Etxaniz J, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Bottom Line: However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention.In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro.We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Bizkaia, Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Origin and differentiation potential of dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs). (a) Origin of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The neural crest arises as a cell population belonging to the fusing edges of the neuroectoderm. After neural tube fusion, neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where they transform into EMSCs. EMSCs migrate to generate the majority of craniofacial tissues, including tooth tissues fat, muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues, as well as cranial peripheral ganglia and nerves, among others. (b) EMSCs are retained in the adult dental pulp and periodontal tissues. These cells keep the potential to differentiate to various cell lineages and thus regenerate different dental and connective tissues. Dental EMSCs appear to hold a particularly high neurogenic potential and may also be used to regenerate nerve tissue.
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fig1: Origin and differentiation potential of dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs). (a) Origin of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The neural crest arises as a cell population belonging to the fusing edges of the neuroectoderm. After neural tube fusion, neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where they transform into EMSCs. EMSCs migrate to generate the majority of craniofacial tissues, including tooth tissues fat, muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues, as well as cranial peripheral ganglia and nerves, among others. (b) EMSCs are retained in the adult dental pulp and periodontal tissues. These cells keep the potential to differentiate to various cell lineages and thus regenerate different dental and connective tissues. Dental EMSCs appear to hold a particularly high neurogenic potential and may also be used to regenerate nerve tissue.

Mentions: Dental and periodontal tissues constitute a relatively recently discovered source of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) [39]. The majority of craniofacial connective tissues, including those of the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, are formed by an special type of mesenchymal tissue, derived from the neural crest during embryonic development, thus termed ectomesenchyme [40]. Ectomesenchyme contributes to the generation of craniofacial structures, such as oral muscles, bones, tongue, craniofacial nerves, and teeth, and dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) therefore share a common origin with neural crest cells [41] (Figure 1).


Neural crest stem cells from dental tissues: a new hope for dental and neural regeneration.

Ibarretxe G, Crende O, Aurrekoetxea M, García-Murga V, Etxaniz J, Unda F - Stem Cells Int (2012)

Origin and differentiation potential of dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs). (a) Origin of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The neural crest arises as a cell population belonging to the fusing edges of the neuroectoderm. After neural tube fusion, neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where they transform into EMSCs. EMSCs migrate to generate the majority of craniofacial tissues, including tooth tissues fat, muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues, as well as cranial peripheral ganglia and nerves, among others. (b) EMSCs are retained in the adult dental pulp and periodontal tissues. These cells keep the potential to differentiate to various cell lineages and thus regenerate different dental and connective tissues. Dental EMSCs appear to hold a particularly high neurogenic potential and may also be used to regenerate nerve tissue.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472918&req=5

fig1: Origin and differentiation potential of dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs). (a) Origin of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs). The neural crest arises as a cell population belonging to the fusing edges of the neuroectoderm. After neural tube fusion, neural crest cells undergo an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), where they transform into EMSCs. EMSCs migrate to generate the majority of craniofacial tissues, including tooth tissues fat, muscle, bone, and cartilage tissues, as well as cranial peripheral ganglia and nerves, among others. (b) EMSCs are retained in the adult dental pulp and periodontal tissues. These cells keep the potential to differentiate to various cell lineages and thus regenerate different dental and connective tissues. Dental EMSCs appear to hold a particularly high neurogenic potential and may also be used to regenerate nerve tissue.
Mentions: Dental and periodontal tissues constitute a relatively recently discovered source of neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) [39]. The majority of craniofacial connective tissues, including those of the dental pulp and periodontal ligament, are formed by an special type of mesenchymal tissue, derived from the neural crest during embryonic development, thus termed ectomesenchyme [40]. Ectomesenchyme contributes to the generation of craniofacial structures, such as oral muscles, bones, tongue, craniofacial nerves, and teeth, and dental ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs) therefore share a common origin with neural crest cells [41] (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention.In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro.We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48940 Bizkaia, Leioa, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Several stem cell sources persist in the adult human body, which opens the doors to both allogeneic and autologous cell therapies. Tooth tissues have proven to be a surprisingly rich and accessible source of neural crest-derived ectomesenchymal stem cells (EMSCs), which may be employed to repair disease-affected oral tissues in advanced regenerative dentistry. Additionally, one area of medicine that demands intensive research on new sources of stem cells is nervous system regeneration, since this constitutes a therapeutic hope for patients affected by highly invalidating conditions such as spinal cord injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative diseases. However, endogenous adult sources of neural stem cells present major drawbacks, such as their scarcity and complicated obtention. In this context, EMSCs from dental tissues emerge as good alternative candidates, since they are preserved in adult human individuals, and retain both high proliferation ability and a neural-like phenotype in vitro. In this paper, we discuss some important aspects of tissue regeneration by cell therapy and point out some advantages that EMSCs provide for dental and neural regeneration. We will finally review some of the latest research featuring experimental approaches and benefits of dental stem cell therapy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus