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Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry.

Fareri DS, Chang LJ, Delgado MR - Front Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral.Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience.These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Rutgers University Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner's moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Main effect of outcome. (A) A 2 (outcome type: positive/negative) × 4 (condition) repeated measures whole brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of outcome in corticostriatal circuitry, including the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3). (B) Extracted mean parameter estimates from this ventral striatum cluster revealed increased BOLD responses to positive compared to negative outcomes, irrespective of condition.
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Figure 3: Main effect of outcome. (A) A 2 (outcome type: positive/negative) × 4 (condition) repeated measures whole brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of outcome in corticostriatal circuitry, including the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3). (B) Extracted mean parameter estimates from this ventral striatum cluster revealed increased BOLD responses to positive compared to negative outcomes, irrespective of condition.

Mentions: We were additionally interested in whether initial social perceptions formed via experience may modulate outcome processing during subsequent trust interactions. An outcome × condition whole brain ANOVA during the outcome phase of the trust game revealed a number of clusters of activation demonstrating a main effect of outcome (see Table 2). Of particular interest was a cluster of activation in the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3) which extended slightly into the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). This cluster demonstrated increased BOLD responses when receiving positive compared to negative outcomes [t(17) = 5.42, p = 0.00005; see Figure 3]. A cluster of activity additionally emerged in the right putamen (x, y, z, = 23, 4, −6) demonstrating a main effect of outcome and showed the same positive > negative response.


Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry.

Fareri DS, Chang LJ, Delgado MR - Front Neurosci (2012)

Main effect of outcome. (A) A 2 (outcome type: positive/negative) × 4 (condition) repeated measures whole brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of outcome in corticostriatal circuitry, including the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3). (B) Extracted mean parameter estimates from this ventral striatum cluster revealed increased BOLD responses to positive compared to negative outcomes, irrespective of condition.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472892&req=5

Figure 3: Main effect of outcome. (A) A 2 (outcome type: positive/negative) × 4 (condition) repeated measures whole brain ANOVA revealed a main effect of outcome in corticostriatal circuitry, including the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3). (B) Extracted mean parameter estimates from this ventral striatum cluster revealed increased BOLD responses to positive compared to negative outcomes, irrespective of condition.
Mentions: We were additionally interested in whether initial social perceptions formed via experience may modulate outcome processing during subsequent trust interactions. An outcome × condition whole brain ANOVA during the outcome phase of the trust game revealed a number of clusters of activation demonstrating a main effect of outcome (see Table 2). Of particular interest was a cluster of activation in the right ventral caudate nucleus (x, y, z = 8, 19, 3) which extended slightly into the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC). This cluster demonstrated increased BOLD responses when receiving positive compared to negative outcomes [t(17) = 5.42, p = 0.00005; see Figure 3]. A cluster of activity additionally emerged in the right putamen (x, y, z, = 23, 4, −6) demonstrating a main effect of outcome and showed the same positive > negative response.

Bottom Line: Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral.Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience.These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Rutgers University Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner's moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus