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Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry.

Fareri DS, Chang LJ, Delgado MR - Front Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral.Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience.These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Rutgers University Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner's moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Task structure. (A) Participants were first introduced to three different partners with whom they would later interact with in the trust game. Participants played three separate versions of Cyberball. The character on the right side of the screen was consistent across all three versions (control). The face and name of the character on the left side changed in each version, as did character ball-tossing behavior to be depicted as good, bad, neutral. (B) After Cyberball, participants played an iterated trust game adapted from Delgado et al. (2005a). Trials with each partner were interleaved within functional scanning runs, as were lottery trials (non-social control). Each trial consisted of a Decision Phase (2 s) in which they were to choose whether to keep or share money with their partner (or not play/play the lottery). After a variable ISI (10–12 s), the Outcome Phase (2 s) was presented consisting of feedback in the form of partner reciprocation/defection, or  feedback indicating defection by the participant. All trials were separated by a 10–12 s ITI.
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Figure 1: Task structure. (A) Participants were first introduced to three different partners with whom they would later interact with in the trust game. Participants played three separate versions of Cyberball. The character on the right side of the screen was consistent across all three versions (control). The face and name of the character on the left side changed in each version, as did character ball-tossing behavior to be depicted as good, bad, neutral. (B) After Cyberball, participants played an iterated trust game adapted from Delgado et al. (2005a). Trials with each partner were interleaved within functional scanning runs, as were lottery trials (non-social control). Each trial consisted of a Decision Phase (2 s) in which they were to choose whether to keep or share money with their partner (or not play/play the lottery). After a variable ISI (10–12 s), the Outcome Phase (2 s) was presented consisting of feedback in the form of partner reciprocation/defection, or feedback indicating defection by the participant. All trials were separated by a 10–12 s ITI.

Mentions: Instructed learning is one method by which we may acquire information about another person’s reputation. We can also have direct experiences with others in separate domains that shape initial impressions before subsequent interactions. For example, we could experience a co-worker as aggressive or bossy in a work environment, and bring this initial impression to subsequent interactions in a more recreational setting. It is unclear whether learning through direct social experience modulates trust behavior similarly to instructed learning. To investigate this, we employed a two-step approach (see Figure 1). We first employed a learning phase in which we manipulated personalities of fictional partners in a computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball; Williams et al., 2000) to be perceived as either “good,” “bad,” or “neutral.” Participants played this game prior to the second step, in which they interacted with these same partners in a modified economic trust game (Delgado et al., 2005a) while undergoing fMRI. Importantly, all partners were programmed to demonstrate similar reciprocation patterns in the trust game, irrespective of their personalities in Cyberball. We hypothesized that social impressions formed from direct social experience would shape perceptions of trustworthiness, subsequent behavior in the trust game, and neural circuitry supporting reputation building.


Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry.

Fareri DS, Chang LJ, Delgado MR - Front Neurosci (2012)

Task structure. (A) Participants were first introduced to three different partners with whom they would later interact with in the trust game. Participants played three separate versions of Cyberball. The character on the right side of the screen was consistent across all three versions (control). The face and name of the character on the left side changed in each version, as did character ball-tossing behavior to be depicted as good, bad, neutral. (B) After Cyberball, participants played an iterated trust game adapted from Delgado et al. (2005a). Trials with each partner were interleaved within functional scanning runs, as were lottery trials (non-social control). Each trial consisted of a Decision Phase (2 s) in which they were to choose whether to keep or share money with their partner (or not play/play the lottery). After a variable ISI (10–12 s), the Outcome Phase (2 s) was presented consisting of feedback in the form of partner reciprocation/defection, or  feedback indicating defection by the participant. All trials were separated by a 10–12 s ITI.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472892&req=5

Figure 1: Task structure. (A) Participants were first introduced to three different partners with whom they would later interact with in the trust game. Participants played three separate versions of Cyberball. The character on the right side of the screen was consistent across all three versions (control). The face and name of the character on the left side changed in each version, as did character ball-tossing behavior to be depicted as good, bad, neutral. (B) After Cyberball, participants played an iterated trust game adapted from Delgado et al. (2005a). Trials with each partner were interleaved within functional scanning runs, as were lottery trials (non-social control). Each trial consisted of a Decision Phase (2 s) in which they were to choose whether to keep or share money with their partner (or not play/play the lottery). After a variable ISI (10–12 s), the Outcome Phase (2 s) was presented consisting of feedback in the form of partner reciprocation/defection, or feedback indicating defection by the participant. All trials were separated by a 10–12 s ITI.
Mentions: Instructed learning is one method by which we may acquire information about another person’s reputation. We can also have direct experiences with others in separate domains that shape initial impressions before subsequent interactions. For example, we could experience a co-worker as aggressive or bossy in a work environment, and bring this initial impression to subsequent interactions in a more recreational setting. It is unclear whether learning through direct social experience modulates trust behavior similarly to instructed learning. To investigate this, we employed a two-step approach (see Figure 1). We first employed a learning phase in which we manipulated personalities of fictional partners in a computerized ball-tossing game (Cyberball; Williams et al., 2000) to be perceived as either “good,” “bad,” or “neutral.” Participants played this game prior to the second step, in which they interacted with these same partners in a modified economic trust game (Delgado et al., 2005a) while undergoing fMRI. Importantly, all partners were programmed to demonstrate similar reciprocation patterns in the trust game, irrespective of their personalities in Cyberball. We hypothesized that social impressions formed from direct social experience would shape perceptions of trustworthiness, subsequent behavior in the trust game, and neural circuitry supporting reputation building.

Bottom Line: Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral.Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience.These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Rutgers University Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
The human striatum is integral for reward-processing and supports learning by linking experienced outcomes with prior expectations. Recent endeavors implicate the striatum in processing outcomes of social interactions, such as social approval/rejection, as well as in learning reputations of others. Interestingly, social impressions often influence our behavior with others during interactions. Information about an interaction partner's moral character acquired from biographical information hinders updating of expectations after interactions via top down modulation of reward circuitry. An outstanding question is whether initial impressions formed through experience similarly modulate the ability to update social impressions at the behavioral and neural level. We investigated the role of experienced social information on trust behavior and reward-related BOLD activity. Participants played a computerized ball-tossing game with three fictional partners manipulated to be perceived as good, bad, or neutral. Participants then played an iterated trust game as investors with these same partners while undergoing fMRI. Unbeknownst to participants, partner behavior in the trust game was random and unrelated to their ball-tossing behavior. Participants' trust decisions were influenced by their prior experience in the ball-tossing game, investing less often with the bad partner compared to the good and neutral. Reinforcement learning models revealed that participants were more sensitive to updating their beliefs about good and bad partners when experiencing outcomes consistent with initial experience. Increased striatal and anterior cingulate BOLD activity for positive versus negative trust game outcomes emerged, which further correlated with model-derived prediction error learning signals. These results suggest that initial impressions formed from direct social experience can be continually shaped by consistent information through reward learning mechanisms.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus