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Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Bandwidth improvement using a resistive antenna [53]; (b) The piezo-electric resonance is restrained using a trapezoidal substrate [56] (Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Reprinted with permission).
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f5-sensors-12-11406: (a) Bandwidth improvement using a resistive antenna [53]; (b) The piezo-electric resonance is restrained using a trapezoidal substrate [56] (Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Reprinted with permission).

Mentions: To maintain φT∼0, the two surfaces in the Z direction were short-circuited via a conducting paste, and a more favorable temperature stability was obtained [51]. It should be noted that laser ablation requires complicated technology and that the short-circuit of the surfaces could also result in higher interference to the original field. From 1991 to 2002, Tajima et al. at the NTT Corp. developed high-sensitivity MZI-based IOESs, as shown in Figure 5(a) [52–58]. The resonance of the dipole antenna limits the high frequency characteristic of the sensor, and a resistive antenna was developed to expand the bandwidth [53]. The measurement accuracy could be altered via the piezo-electric resonance phenomenon of the LiNbO3 crystal; in other words, an E-field with a specific frequency stimulates the mechanical resonance of the crystal through the inverse piezo-electric effect, and the resulting strain alters the refractive index through the photo-elastic effect. The LiNbO3 substrate was shaped as a trapezoid, dispersing the resonance energy and restraining the piezo-electric resonance phenomena, as shown in Figure 5(b) [56]. To ensure that φB∼π/2, a method for adjusting φB via strain was proposed [57]. A three-dimensional sensor was implemented by locating three one-dimensional sensors on the surfaces of a triangular prism; the fabricated sensor had a bandwidth greater than 10 GHz and a minimum detectable field of less than 22 mV/m [58].


Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) Bandwidth improvement using a resistive antenna [53]; (b) The piezo-electric resonance is restrained using a trapezoidal substrate [56] (Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Reprinted with permission).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472891&req=5

f5-sensors-12-11406: (a) Bandwidth improvement using a resistive antenna [53]; (b) The piezo-electric resonance is restrained using a trapezoidal substrate [56] (Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Reprinted with permission).
Mentions: To maintain φT∼0, the two surfaces in the Z direction were short-circuited via a conducting paste, and a more favorable temperature stability was obtained [51]. It should be noted that laser ablation requires complicated technology and that the short-circuit of the surfaces could also result in higher interference to the original field. From 1991 to 2002, Tajima et al. at the NTT Corp. developed high-sensitivity MZI-based IOESs, as shown in Figure 5(a) [52–58]. The resonance of the dipole antenna limits the high frequency characteristic of the sensor, and a resistive antenna was developed to expand the bandwidth [53]. The measurement accuracy could be altered via the piezo-electric resonance phenomenon of the LiNbO3 crystal; in other words, an E-field with a specific frequency stimulates the mechanical resonance of the crystal through the inverse piezo-electric effect, and the resulting strain alters the refractive index through the photo-elastic effect. The LiNbO3 substrate was shaped as a trapezoid, dispersing the resonance energy and restraining the piezo-electric resonance phenomena, as shown in Figure 5(b) [56]. To ensure that φB∼π/2, a method for adjusting φB via strain was proposed [57]. A three-dimensional sensor was implemented by locating three one-dimensional sensors on the surfaces of a triangular prism; the fabricated sensor had a bandwidth greater than 10 GHz and a minimum detectable field of less than 22 mV/m [58].

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.