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Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.


IOES produced by NRL; the optical bias φB is adjusted by laser ablation [51] (Copyright © 1995 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
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f4-sensors-12-11406: IOES produced by NRL; the optical bias φB is adjusted by laser ablation [51] (Copyright © 1995 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).

Mentions: The typical structure of an IOES based on the MZI is shown in Figure 4. As the linear polarized light enters the waveguide, it is equally divided by the first Y-branch. The antenna and electrode amplify the external E-field. Next, the refractive index of the two waveguide arms are differently altered, resulting in a phase mismatch between the optical signals in the two arms. The two phase-modulated optical signals interfere with each other when they merge at the second Y branch. Consequently, the two optical signals become an intensity-modulated optical signal. The transfer function of the measurement system is expressed in Equation (1). To improve the sensitivity, the largest electro-optic coefficient γ33 is adopted, and the X-cut Y-propagating LiNbO3 wafer is commonly used. φ(E) can be described as [45]:(3)φ(E)=2πΓne3r33Lelλ0Einwhere Γ is the electro-optic overlap integral, representing the interaction of the E-field and the optical field; ne is the extraordinary refractive index; Lel is the electrode length; λ0 is the vacuum wavelength; and Ein is the E-field imposed on the waveguide in the Z direction.


Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

IOES produced by NRL; the optical bias φB is adjusted by laser ablation [51] (Copyright © 1995 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472891&req=5

f4-sensors-12-11406: IOES produced by NRL; the optical bias φB is adjusted by laser ablation [51] (Copyright © 1995 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
Mentions: The typical structure of an IOES based on the MZI is shown in Figure 4. As the linear polarized light enters the waveguide, it is equally divided by the first Y-branch. The antenna and electrode amplify the external E-field. Next, the refractive index of the two waveguide arms are differently altered, resulting in a phase mismatch between the optical signals in the two arms. The two phase-modulated optical signals interfere with each other when they merge at the second Y branch. Consequently, the two optical signals become an intensity-modulated optical signal. The transfer function of the measurement system is expressed in Equation (1). To improve the sensitivity, the largest electro-optic coefficient γ33 is adopted, and the X-cut Y-propagating LiNbO3 wafer is commonly used. φ(E) can be described as [45]:(3)φ(E)=2πΓne3r33Lelλ0Einwhere Γ is the electro-optic overlap integral, representing the interaction of the E-field and the optical field; ne is the extraordinary refractive index; Lel is the electrode length; λ0 is the vacuum wavelength; and Ein is the E-field imposed on the waveguide in the Z direction.

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.