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Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Miniature Pockels Cell [34] (Copyright © 2008 OSA, Reprinted with permission); (b) Pockels Cell based on KDP crystal [41] (Copyright © 2011 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
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f2-sensors-12-11406: (a) Miniature Pockels Cell [34] (Copyright © 2008 OSA, Reprinted with permission); (b) Pockels Cell based on KDP crystal [41] (Copyright © 2011 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).

Mentions: In the initial stages, the Pockels Cell was mainly based on discrete optical components. In 1982, Hidaka studied corona discharge fields using the Pockels Cell and developed sensors for two-dimensional measurement [26–28]. From 1999 to 2007, Ceceja et al. applied the Pockels Cell to measurement of the DC E-field and studied the effect of space charge [29–31]. Based on further research developments, discrete components were assembled, which improved the stability and practicality of the sensor, shown in Figure 2. Since 2001, Duvillaret et al. have developed assembled Pockels Cells for one-dimensional and two-dimensional detection and demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of E-field and temperature [32–35]. Since 2005, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has comprehensively studied the influence of additional physical effects such as the photo-refractive effect, piezo-electric effect and dielectric property on measurement sensitivity. Various outdoor HPM tests were conducted for solving the problems of low-frequency drift and high-frequency noise [36–41].


Development and application of integrated optical sensors for intense E-field measurement.

Zeng R, Wang B, Niu B, Yu Z - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) Miniature Pockels Cell [34] (Copyright © 2008 OSA, Reprinted with permission); (b) Pockels Cell based on KDP crystal [41] (Copyright © 2011 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472891&req=5

f2-sensors-12-11406: (a) Miniature Pockels Cell [34] (Copyright © 2008 OSA, Reprinted with permission); (b) Pockels Cell based on KDP crystal [41] (Copyright © 2011 IEEE, Reprinted with permission).
Mentions: In the initial stages, the Pockels Cell was mainly based on discrete optical components. In 1982, Hidaka studied corona discharge fields using the Pockels Cell and developed sensors for two-dimensional measurement [26–28]. From 1999 to 2007, Ceceja et al. applied the Pockels Cell to measurement of the DC E-field and studied the effect of space charge [29–31]. Based on further research developments, discrete components were assembled, which improved the stability and practicality of the sensor, shown in Figure 2. Since 2001, Duvillaret et al. have developed assembled Pockels Cells for one-dimensional and two-dimensional detection and demonstrated the simultaneous measurement of E-field and temperature [32–35]. Since 2005, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has comprehensively studied the influence of additional physical effects such as the photo-refractive effect, piezo-electric effect and dielectric property on measurement sensitivity. Various outdoor HPM tests were conducted for solving the problems of low-frequency drift and high-frequency noise [36–41].

Bottom Line: Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection.More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated.Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Lab of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China. zengrong@tsinghua.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics.

No MeSH data available.