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A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

Liu X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs.In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics.Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China. liuxuxun@scut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

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The Structure of Multi-level Cluster in DWEHC.
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f3-sensors-12-11113: The Structure of Multi-level Cluster in DWEHC.

Mentions: Different from LEACH and HEED, DWEHC creates a multi-level structure for intra-cluster communication and limits a parent node's number of children. Moreover, the only locally calculated parameter weight is defined for CH election in DWEHC. After locating the neighboring nodes in its area, each node calculates its weight according to:(3)Wweight(s)=Eresidual(s)Einitial(s)×∑uR−d6Rwhere Eresidual(s) and Einitial(s) are respectively residual and initial energy at node s, R is the cluster range that corresponds to how far from the CH to a node inside a cluster, and d is the distance between node s and the neighboring node u. In a neighborhood, according to Equation (3), the node with largest weight would be elected a CH and the other nodes become members. At this stage, MNs are considered as 1-level nodes and communicate directly with the CH. A MN can progressively adjust such membership in order to reach a CH using the least amount of energy. Given the node's knowledge of the distance to its neighbors, it can assess whether it is better to stay a 1-level member or become a h-level one where h is the number of hops from the CH to itself. If a MN can save energy while reaching its CH with more than one hop, it will become a h-level member. The process continues until all nodes achieve the most energy-efficient intra-cluster topology. Energy consumption for communicate in a cluster can be computed according to node's knowledge of the distance to its neighbors. To limit the number of levels, every cluster is assigned a cluster range R within which MNs should lay. The structure of multi-level cluster in DWEHC is illustrated in Figure 3. After running DWEHC, a node either becomes a CH or becomes a child in a cluster, and a node is covered by only one CH.


A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

Liu X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

The Structure of Multi-level Cluster in DWEHC.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472877&req=5

f3-sensors-12-11113: The Structure of Multi-level Cluster in DWEHC.
Mentions: Different from LEACH and HEED, DWEHC creates a multi-level structure for intra-cluster communication and limits a parent node's number of children. Moreover, the only locally calculated parameter weight is defined for CH election in DWEHC. After locating the neighboring nodes in its area, each node calculates its weight according to:(3)Wweight(s)=Eresidual(s)Einitial(s)×∑uR−d6Rwhere Eresidual(s) and Einitial(s) are respectively residual and initial energy at node s, R is the cluster range that corresponds to how far from the CH to a node inside a cluster, and d is the distance between node s and the neighboring node u. In a neighborhood, according to Equation (3), the node with largest weight would be elected a CH and the other nodes become members. At this stage, MNs are considered as 1-level nodes and communicate directly with the CH. A MN can progressively adjust such membership in order to reach a CH using the least amount of energy. Given the node's knowledge of the distance to its neighbors, it can assess whether it is better to stay a 1-level member or become a h-level one where h is the number of hops from the CH to itself. If a MN can save energy while reaching its CH with more than one hop, it will become a h-level member. The process continues until all nodes achieve the most energy-efficient intra-cluster topology. Energy consumption for communicate in a cluster can be computed according to node's knowledge of the distance to its neighbors. To limit the number of levels, every cluster is assigned a cluster range R within which MNs should lay. The structure of multi-level cluster in DWEHC is illustrated in Figure 3. After running DWEHC, a node either becomes a CH or becomes a child in a cluster, and a node is covered by only one CH.

Bottom Line: Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs.In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics.Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China. liuxuxun@scut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

Show MeSH