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A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

Liu X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs.In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics.Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China. liuxuxun@scut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

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The Basic Topology of LEACH.
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f2-sensors-12-11113: The Basic Topology of LEACH.

Mentions: The operation of LEACH is broken up into lots of rounds, where each round is separated into two phases, the set-up phase and the steady-state phase. In the set-up phase the clusters are organized, while in the steady-state phase data is delivered to the BS. During the set-up phase, each node decides whether or not to become a CH for the current round. This decision is based on the suggested percentage of CHs for the network and the number of times the node has been a CH so far. This decision is made by the node choosing a random number between 0 and 1. The node becomes a CH for the current round if the number is less than the following threshold:(1)T(n)={P1−P(rmod1P),ifn∈G0,otherwisewhere P is the desired percentage of CHs, r is the current round, and G is the set of nodes that have not been elected CHs in the last 1/P rounds. When a node is elected CH successfully, it broadcasts an advertisement message to the other nodes. According to the received signal strength of the advertisement, other nodes decide to which cluster it will join for this round and send a membership message to its CH. In order to evenly distribute energy load among sensor nodes, CHs rotation is performed at each round by generating a new advertisement phase based on Equation (1). During the steady-state phase, the sensor nodes sense and transmit data to the CHs. The CHs compress data arriving from nodes that belong to the respective cluster, and send an aggregated or fused packet to the BS directly. Besides, LEACH uses a TDMA/code-division multiple access (CDMA) MAC to reduce inter-cluster and intra-cluster collisions. After a certain time, which is determined a priori, the network goes back into the set-up phase again and enters another round of CH election. Figure 2 showed the basic topology of LEACH.


A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks.

Liu X - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

The Basic Topology of LEACH.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472877&req=5

f2-sensors-12-11113: The Basic Topology of LEACH.
Mentions: The operation of LEACH is broken up into lots of rounds, where each round is separated into two phases, the set-up phase and the steady-state phase. In the set-up phase the clusters are organized, while in the steady-state phase data is delivered to the BS. During the set-up phase, each node decides whether or not to become a CH for the current round. This decision is based on the suggested percentage of CHs for the network and the number of times the node has been a CH so far. This decision is made by the node choosing a random number between 0 and 1. The node becomes a CH for the current round if the number is less than the following threshold:(1)T(n)={P1−P(rmod1P),ifn∈G0,otherwisewhere P is the desired percentage of CHs, r is the current round, and G is the set of nodes that have not been elected CHs in the last 1/P rounds. When a node is elected CH successfully, it broadcasts an advertisement message to the other nodes. According to the received signal strength of the advertisement, other nodes decide to which cluster it will join for this round and send a membership message to its CH. In order to evenly distribute energy load among sensor nodes, CHs rotation is performed at each round by generating a new advertisement phase based on Equation (1). During the steady-state phase, the sensor nodes sense and transmit data to the CHs. The CHs compress data arriving from nodes that belong to the respective cluster, and send an aggregated or fused packet to the BS directly. Besides, LEACH uses a TDMA/code-division multiple access (CDMA) MAC to reduce inter-cluster and intra-cluster collisions. After a certain time, which is determined a priori, the network goes back into the set-up phase again and enters another round of CH election. Figure 2 showed the basic topology of LEACH.

Bottom Line: Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs.In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics.Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electronic and Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641, China. liuxuxun@scut.edu.cn

ABSTRACT
The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions.

Show MeSH