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Fully integrated biochip platforms for advanced healthcare.

Carrara S, Ghoreishizadeh S, Olivo J, Taurino I, Baj-Rossi C, Cavallini A, de Beeck MO, Dehollain C, Burleson W, Moussy FG, Guiseppi-Elie A, De Micheli G - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices.Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues.The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. sandro.carrara@epfl.ch

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of an inductive powering performing bidirectional data transmission.
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f14-sensors-12-11013: Schematic representation of an inductive powering performing bidirectional data transmission.

Mentions: Inductive links present considerable additional complexity, when compared with other kinds of power transmission. Exploiting this technique, data can be transmitted from outside to inside the body (downlink) and vice versa (uplink) (Figure 14) without using a radio-frequency active transmitter which would otherwise consume significant power due to the RF oscillator and amplifier. This can be feasible by instead modulating the load of the secondary coil, varying in this way the total load seen by the primary coil. This technique of data transmission, often named load-modulation, allows significant energy savings by avoiding the use of an implanted RF active transmitter. Indeed, the RF active transmitter would otherwise have the highest power consumption among the components of an implantable biosensor. The capability to avoid an implanted RF active transmitter, together with a delivered power of up to a few milliwatts, makes this technique particularly suitable for very small (i.e., minimally-invasive) implantable biosensors.


Fully integrated biochip platforms for advanced healthcare.

Carrara S, Ghoreishizadeh S, Olivo J, Taurino I, Baj-Rossi C, Cavallini A, de Beeck MO, Dehollain C, Burleson W, Moussy FG, Guiseppi-Elie A, De Micheli G - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Schematic representation of an inductive powering performing bidirectional data transmission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472872&req=5

f14-sensors-12-11013: Schematic representation of an inductive powering performing bidirectional data transmission.
Mentions: Inductive links present considerable additional complexity, when compared with other kinds of power transmission. Exploiting this technique, data can be transmitted from outside to inside the body (downlink) and vice versa (uplink) (Figure 14) without using a radio-frequency active transmitter which would otherwise consume significant power due to the RF oscillator and amplifier. This can be feasible by instead modulating the load of the secondary coil, varying in this way the total load seen by the primary coil. This technique of data transmission, often named load-modulation, allows significant energy savings by avoiding the use of an implanted RF active transmitter. Indeed, the RF active transmitter would otherwise have the highest power consumption among the components of an implantable biosensor. The capability to avoid an implanted RF active transmitter, together with a delivered power of up to a few milliwatts, makes this technique particularly suitable for very small (i.e., minimally-invasive) implantable biosensors.

Bottom Line: However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices.Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues.The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland. sandro.carrara@epfl.ch

ABSTRACT
Recent advances in microelectronics and biosensors are enabling developments of innovative biochips for advanced healthcare by providing fully integrated platforms for continuous monitoring of a large set of human disease biomarkers. Continuous monitoring of several human metabolites can be addressed by using fully integrated and minimally invasive devices located in the sub-cutis, typically in the peritoneal region. This extends the techniques of continuous monitoring of glucose currently being pursued with diabetic patients. However, several issues have to be considered in order to succeed in developing fully integrated and minimally invasive implantable devices. These innovative devices require a high-degree of integration, minimal invasive surgery, long-term biocompatibility, security and privacy in data transmission, high reliability, high reproducibility, high specificity, low detection limit and high sensitivity. Recent advances in the field have already proposed possible solutions for several of these issues. The aim of the present paper is to present a broad spectrum of recent results and to propose future directions of development in order to obtain fully implantable systems for the continuous monitoring of the human metabolism in advanced healthcare applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus