Limits...
A low-cost, portable, high-throughput wireless sensor system for phonocardiography applications.

Sa-Ngasoongsong A, Kunthong J, Sarangan V, Cai X, Bukkapatnam ST - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing.The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically.The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Engineering & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. akkarap@okstate.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm × 5 cm × 1 cm), high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate), and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch) of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Example of phonocardiography sensors (a) HSM-300 Heart sounds Monitor from IWORK; (b) Heart sounds microphone model 50-4724 from MindWare; (c) MLT 201 Cardio Microphone from ADinstruments; (d) Physiological Sounds Microphone Model AH153 from Biopac Systems.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472861&req=5

f2-sensors-12-10851: Example of phonocardiography sensors (a) HSM-300 Heart sounds Monitor from IWORK; (b) Heart sounds microphone model 50-4724 from MindWare; (c) MLT 201 Cardio Microphone from ADinstruments; (d) Physiological Sounds Microphone Model AH153 from Biopac Systems.

Mentions: A wireless sensor system for PCG applications consists of two main elements: a wireless platform and a PCG sensor. The most common PCG sensor for medical applications is a stethoscope. A physician places a stethoscope on the surface of the patient's body to listen to heart sounds. Other types of phonocardiography sensors, including heart sound and cardio microphones, have also been used in cardiological research as shown in Figure 2.


A low-cost, portable, high-throughput wireless sensor system for phonocardiography applications.

Sa-Ngasoongsong A, Kunthong J, Sarangan V, Cai X, Bukkapatnam ST - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Example of phonocardiography sensors (a) HSM-300 Heart sounds Monitor from IWORK; (b) Heart sounds microphone model 50-4724 from MindWare; (c) MLT 201 Cardio Microphone from ADinstruments; (d) Physiological Sounds Microphone Model AH153 from Biopac Systems.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472861&req=5

f2-sensors-12-10851: Example of phonocardiography sensors (a) HSM-300 Heart sounds Monitor from IWORK; (b) Heart sounds microphone model 50-4724 from MindWare; (c) MLT 201 Cardio Microphone from ADinstruments; (d) Physiological Sounds Microphone Model AH153 from Biopac Systems.
Mentions: A wireless sensor system for PCG applications consists of two main elements: a wireless platform and a PCG sensor. The most common PCG sensor for medical applications is a stethoscope. A physician places a stethoscope on the surface of the patient's body to listen to heart sounds. Other types of phonocardiography sensors, including heart sound and cardio microphones, have also been used in cardiological research as shown in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing.The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically.The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Engineering & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. akkarap@okstate.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm × 5 cm × 1 cm), high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate), and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch) of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus