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A low-cost, portable, high-throughput wireless sensor system for phonocardiography applications.

Sa-Ngasoongsong A, Kunthong J, Sarangan V, Cai X, Bukkapatnam ST - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing.The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically.The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Engineering & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. akkarap@okstate.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm × 5 cm × 1 cm), high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate), and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch) of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

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(a) Heart Sounds before Experiments; (b) Heart Rate (BPM) after Experiments.
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f13-sensors-12-10851: (a) Heart Sounds before Experiments; (b) Heart Rate (BPM) after Experiments.

Mentions: Many studies [42–44] have reported that the heart rate is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular disease. An elevated heart rate has been found to be a powerful predictor of death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Collecting heart sounds before and after training experiments provides useful information for analyzing the human heart. Fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2) can be located using local peaks and timing as shown in Figure 13(a). Figure 13(b) shows the heart rate of all subjects after the training experiment. From the experimental results, the proposed wireless PCG sensor system, compared to a wired PCG sensor, can capture heart sounds data without data loss.


A low-cost, portable, high-throughput wireless sensor system for phonocardiography applications.

Sa-Ngasoongsong A, Kunthong J, Sarangan V, Cai X, Bukkapatnam ST - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

(a) Heart Sounds before Experiments; (b) Heart Rate (BPM) after Experiments.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472861&req=5

f13-sensors-12-10851: (a) Heart Sounds before Experiments; (b) Heart Rate (BPM) after Experiments.
Mentions: Many studies [42–44] have reported that the heart rate is one of the risk factors in cardiovascular disease. An elevated heart rate has been found to be a powerful predictor of death in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure. Collecting heart sounds before and after training experiments provides useful information for analyzing the human heart. Fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2) can be located using local peaks and timing as shown in Figure 13(a). Figure 13(b) shows the heart rate of all subjects after the training experiment. From the experimental results, the proposed wireless PCG sensor system, compared to a wired PCG sensor, can capture heart sounds data without data loss.

Bottom Line: The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing.The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically.The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Industrial Engineering & Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA. akkarap@okstate.edu

ABSTRACT
This paper presents the design and testing of a wireless sensor system developed using a Microchip PICDEM developer kit to acquire and monitor human heart sounds for phonocardiography applications. This system can serve as a cost-effective option to the recent developments in wireless phonocardiography sensors that have primarily focused on Bluetooth technology. This wireless sensor system has been designed and developed in-house using off-the-shelf components and open source software for remote and mobile applications. The small form factor (3.75 cm × 5 cm × 1 cm), high throughput (6,000 Hz data streaming rate), and low cost ($13 per unit for a 1,000 unit batch) of this wireless sensor system make it particularly attractive for phonocardiography and other sensing applications. The experimental results of sensor signal analysis using several signal characterization techniques suggest that this wireless sensor system can capture both fundamental heart sounds (S1 and S2), and is also capable of capturing abnormal heart sounds (S3 and S4) and heart murmurs without aliasing. The results of a denoising application using Wavelet Transform show that the undesirable noises of sensor signals in the surrounding environment can be reduced dramatically. The exercising experiment results also show that this proposed wireless PCG system can capture heart sounds over different heart conditions simulated by varying heart rates of six subjects over a range of 60-180 Hz through exercise testing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus