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Lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors for food safety.

Yoon JY, Kim B - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens.Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized.Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. jyyoon@email.arizona.edu

ABSTRACT
There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

ELISA lab-on-a-chip.
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f6-sensors-12-10713: ELISA lab-on-a-chip.

Mentions: ELISA is generally performed on a microplate (typically with 12 × 8 = 96 microwells in a single plate) and its result is quantified with a microplate reader. This is, in a way, a form of optical immunosensor. The wells can be replaced with a microchannel (thus lab-on-a-chip), where the target solution continuously flows through the microchannel (flow injection analysis). The antibodies are immobilized onto the inner surface, at a specific location, of a microchannel. The continuous flow's characteristics make the rinsing very effective. In fact, neither suction-dispensing cycle nor stirring is required, as the flow should remove any excess molecules from the inner surface of a microchannel. Light is irradiated to the location where the antibodies are immobilized; while the light sensor reads the signal from the other side of a microchannel (Figure 6).


Lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors for food safety.

Yoon JY, Kim B - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

ELISA lab-on-a-chip.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472853&req=5

f6-sensors-12-10713: ELISA lab-on-a-chip.
Mentions: ELISA is generally performed on a microplate (typically with 12 × 8 = 96 microwells in a single plate) and its result is quantified with a microplate reader. This is, in a way, a form of optical immunosensor. The wells can be replaced with a microchannel (thus lab-on-a-chip), where the target solution continuously flows through the microchannel (flow injection analysis). The antibodies are immobilized onto the inner surface, at a specific location, of a microchannel. The continuous flow's characteristics make the rinsing very effective. In fact, neither suction-dispensing cycle nor stirring is required, as the flow should remove any excess molecules from the inner surface of a microchannel. Light is irradiated to the location where the antibodies are immobilized; while the light sensor reads the signal from the other side of a microchannel (Figure 6).

Bottom Line: Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens.Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized.Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, the University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. jyyoon@email.arizona.edu

ABSTRACT
There have been a number of cases of foodborne illness among humans that are caused by pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, etc. The current practices to detect such pathogenic agents are cell culturing, immunoassays, or polymerase chain reactions (PCRs). These methods are essentially laboratory-based methods that are not at all real-time and thus unavailable for early-monitoring of such pathogens. They are also very difficult to implement in the field. Lab-on-a-chip biosensors, however, have a strong potential to be used in the field since they can be miniaturized and automated; they are also potentially fast and very sensitive. These lab-on-a-chip biosensors can detect pathogens in farms, packaging/processing facilities, delivery/distribution systems, and at the consumer level. There are still several issues to be resolved before applying these lab-on-a-chip sensors to field applications, including the pre-treatment of a sample, proper storage of reagents, full integration into a battery-powered system, and demonstration of very high sensitivity, which are addressed in this review article. Several different types of lab-on-a-chip biosensors, including immunoassay- and PCR-based, have been developed and tested for detecting foodborne pathogens. Their assay performance, including detection limit and assay time, are also summarized. Finally, the use of optical fibers or optical waveguide is discussed as a means to improve the portability and sensitivity of lab-on-a-chip pathogen sensors.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus