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Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Connectivity of BoX-MAC and CLAC in 10-node (left) and 22-node (right) tree topologies.
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f8-sensors-12-10511: Connectivity of BoX-MAC and CLAC in 10-node (left) and 22-node (right) tree topologies.

Mentions: Figure 8 shows the connectivity achieved for tree topologies. CLAC improves the connectivity when compared to linear topologies, as observed for DC=20%, for which all networks are completely connected. In the case of the 10-node tree (left hand side) for values of p = −1 and p = 1 and DC equal to 10%, the network is also connected (as in BoX-MAC), which is an improvement over the linear topology. When we increase the size of the tree (right hand side), the network connectivity decreases slightly for DC = 10%. The reason is that in tree topologies a node is affected by the load of its children; in particular, a heavy load at a node generated by its children may impair its communication with some of them. We can conclude that the neighboring size is an important factor for achieving connectivity, and that the connectivity loss in CLAC as compared to BoX-MAC is mainly due to the loss of beacon messages, whose arrival times cannot be known a priori. Once the topology is established, CLAC may then adapt the delays due to data packets as proposed in this work.


Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Connectivity of BoX-MAC and CLAC in 10-node (left) and 22-node (right) tree topologies.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472841&req=5

f8-sensors-12-10511: Connectivity of BoX-MAC and CLAC in 10-node (left) and 22-node (right) tree topologies.
Mentions: Figure 8 shows the connectivity achieved for tree topologies. CLAC improves the connectivity when compared to linear topologies, as observed for DC=20%, for which all networks are completely connected. In the case of the 10-node tree (left hand side) for values of p = −1 and p = 1 and DC equal to 10%, the network is also connected (as in BoX-MAC), which is an improvement over the linear topology. When we increase the size of the tree (right hand side), the network connectivity decreases slightly for DC = 10%. The reason is that in tree topologies a node is affected by the load of its children; in particular, a heavy load at a node generated by its children may impair its communication with some of them. We can conclude that the neighboring size is an important factor for achieving connectivity, and that the connectivity loss in CLAC as compared to BoX-MAC is mainly due to the loss of beacon messages, whose arrival times cannot be known a priori. Once the topology is established, CLAC may then adapt the delays due to data packets as proposed in this work.

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus