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Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

BoX-MAC behavior with communication delays.
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f4-sensors-12-10511: BoX-MAC behavior with communication delays.

Mentions: In Figure 4 we present the behavior of BoX-MAC protocol, where nodes can incur communications delays. As explained in Section 2.3.1, a BoX-MAC node keeps transmitting a packet until it receives an acknowledgment packet from the receiver. Let γ be the delay introduced by node ik in the path (we define more precisely this delay in Section 4). In the figure, during the check interval c, node i1 introduces a delay before sending the packet and propagates it to the next hop in the path i2, which cannot receive the packet correctly. When i2 forwards the packet to the next hop i3 (note it is common that this happens in the next check interval), it introduces a new delay. Since i3 cannot receive the packet at the check interval c + 1 because the accumulated delay spans its time of channel sampling, i2 continuously retransmits the packet during the sleep time of i3. When i3 awakes in the next check interval c + 2, it receives the packet and sends an acknowledgment packet to i2, which stops the retransmission. Thus, the reception of the packets could be shifted to the next rounds of communication. To deal with these communication delays the check intervals need to be adjusted in each hop in order to match the time to turn the radio on in the sender and the receiver.


Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals in low power listening MAC protocols for lifetime improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Escolar S, Chessa S, Carretero J, Marinescu MC - Sensors (Basel) (2012)

BoX-MAC behavior with communication delays.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3472841&req=5

f4-sensors-12-10511: BoX-MAC behavior with communication delays.
Mentions: In Figure 4 we present the behavior of BoX-MAC protocol, where nodes can incur communications delays. As explained in Section 2.3.1, a BoX-MAC node keeps transmitting a packet until it receives an acknowledgment packet from the receiver. Let γ be the delay introduced by node ik in the path (we define more precisely this delay in Section 4). In the figure, during the check interval c, node i1 introduces a delay before sending the packet and propagates it to the next hop in the path i2, which cannot receive the packet correctly. When i2 forwards the packet to the next hop i3 (note it is common that this happens in the next check interval), it introduces a new delay. Since i3 cannot receive the packet at the check interval c + 1 because the accumulated delay spans its time of channel sampling, i2 continuously retransmits the packet during the sleep time of i3. When i3 awakes in the next check interval c + 2, it receives the packet and sends an acknowledgment packet to i2, which stops the retransmission. Thus, the reception of the packets could be shifted to the next rounds of communication. To deal with these communication delays the check intervals need to be adjusted in each hop in order to match the time to turn the radio on in the sender and the receiver.

Bottom Line: We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay.CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time.The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Computer Science Department, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Madrid 28911, Spain. mariasoledad.escolar@uc3m.es

ABSTRACT
Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus